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Quantification of Ice Nuclei Active at Near 0 °c Temperatures in L...

By: L. Deguillaume; M. Monier; P. Amato; C. Hoose; M. Joly; A.-m. Delort

Description: Clermont Université, Université Blaise Pascal, Institut de Chimie de Clermont-Ferrand, BP 10448, 63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France. The distribution, abundance and nature of ice nucleation active particles in the atmosphere are major sources of uncertainty in the prediction of cloud coverage, precipitation patterns and climate. Some biological ice nuclei (IN) induce freezing at temperatures at which most other atmospheric particles exhibit no detectable act...

Atkinson, J. D., Murray, B. J., Woodhouse, M. T., Whale, T. F., Baustian, K. J., Carslaw, K. S., Dobbie, S., O'Sullivan, D., and Malkin, T. L.: The importance of feldspar for ice nucleation by mineral dust in mixed-phase clouds, Nature, 498, 355–358, 2013.; Attard, E., Yang, H., Delort, A.-M., Amato, P., Pöschl, U., Glaux, C., Koop, T., and Morris, C. E.: Effects of atmospheric conditions on ice nucleation activity of Pseudomonas, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 10667–106...

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Vertical Profiles, Optical and Microphysical Properties of Saharan...

By: F. Immler; O. Schrems

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. A unique data set of ship-borne lidar measurements of Saharan dust layers above the Atlantic ocean has been collected aboard the research vessel Polarstern with a mobile Aerosol Raman Lidar (MARL) during the LIMPIDO-campaign in June 2000. Extended Saharan dust layers have been observed in the region between 8.5° N and 34° N in an altitude range between 2 and 6 km. The c...

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Modelling of Cirrus Clouds – Part 2: Competition of Different Nucl...

By: P. Spichtinger; K. M. Gierens

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. We study the competition of two different freezing mechanisms (homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing) in the same environment for cold cirrus clouds. To this goal we use the recently developed and validated ice microphysics scheme (Spichtinger and Gierens, 2008, henceforth Part 1) which distinguishes between ice classes according to their formation process. We investiga...

Fusina, F., Spichtinger, P., and Lohmann, U.: The impact of ice supersaturated regions and thin cirrus on radiation in the mid latitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S14, doi:10.1029/2007JD008449, 2007.; Grabowski, W. and Smolarkiewicz, P.: A multiscale anelastic model for meteorological research, Mon. Weather Rev., 130, 939–956, 2002.; Haag, W. and Kärcher, B. The impact of aerosols and gravity waves on cirrus clouds at midlatitudes, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D12202, doi:10....

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Tropospheric Aerosol Microphysics Simulation with Assimilated Mete...

By: P. J. Adams; D. V. Spracklen; K. S. Carslaw; W. Trivitayanurak

Description: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We implement the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) microphysics module into GEOS-CHEM, a CTM driven by assimilated meteorology. TOMAS has 30 size sections covering 0.01–10 μm diameter with conservation equations for both aerosol mass and number. The implementation enables GEOS-CHEM to simulate aerosol microphysics, size distributions, mass and...

Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Predicting global aerosol size distributions in general circulation models, J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos., 107, 4370, doi:10.1029/2001JD001010, 2002.; Albrecht, B. A.: Aerosols, Cloud Microphysics, and Fractional Cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Adams, P. J. and Seinfeld, J. H.: Disproportionate impact of particulate emissions on global cloud condensation nuclei concentrations, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1239, doi:10.1029/2002GL016303...

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Black Carbon Physical Properties and Mixing State in the European ...

By: Z. Jurányi; T. Tritscher; B. Temime-roussel; M. Crippa; A. S. H. Prévôt; E. Weingartner; U. Baltensperger; M. Gysel; P. F. Decarlo; M. Laborde; N. Marchand; A. Stohl; S. Eckhardt

Description: Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI, Switzerland. Aerosol hygroscopicity and black carbon (BC) properties were characterised during wintertime in Paris, one of the biggest European megacities. Hygroscopic growth factor (GF) distributions, characterised by distinct modes of more-hygroscopic background aerosol and non- or slightly hygroscopic aerosol of local (or regional) origin, revealed an increase of the relat...

Baltensperger, U., Streit, N., Weingartner, E., Nyeki, S., Prévôt, A. S. H., Van Dingenen, R., Virkkula, A., Putaud, J. P., Even, A., Brink, H. T., Blatter, A., Neftel, A., and Gäggeler, H. W.: Urban and rural aerosol characterization of summer smog events during the PIPAPO field campaign in Milan, Italy, J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8193, doi:10.1029/2001JD001292, 2002.; Bond, T. C. and Bergstrom, R. W.: Light absorption by c...

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Characteristics and Sources of Gravity Waves Observed in Nlc Over ...

By: N. H. Kleinknecht; P. J. Espy; M. Hatlen; G. Baumgarten; N. Kaifler; T. D. Demissie

Description: Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway. Four years of noctilucent cloud (NLC) images from an automated digital camera in Trondheim and results from a ray tracing model are used to extend the climatology of gravity waves to higher latitudes and to identify their sources at high latitudes during summertime. The climatology of the summertime gravity-waves detected in NLC between 64° and 74° N is similar to that obse...

Baumgarten, G., Fiedler, J., Fricke, K. H., Gerding, M., Hervig, M., Hoffmann, P., Müller, N., Pautet, P.-D., Rapp, M., Robert, C., Rusch, D., von Savigny, C., and Singer, W.: The noctilucent cloud (NLC) display during the ECOMA/MASS sounding rocket flights on 3 August 2007: morphology on global to local scales, Ann. Geophys., 27, 953–965, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-953-2009, 2009a.; Baumgarten, G., Gerding, M., Kaifler, ...

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Sensitivity of Global Modeling Initiative Chemistry and Transport ...

By: D. J. Bergmann; H. Liu; D. B. Considine

Description: NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, USA. We have used the Global Modeling Initiative chemistry and transport model to simulate the radionuclides radon-222 and lead-210 using three different sets of input meteorological information: 1. Output from the Goddard Space Flight Center Global Modeling and Assimilation Office GEOS-STRAT assimilation; 2. Output from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies GISS II' general circulation model; and 3. Ou...

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Modeling the Influences of Aerosols on Pre-monsoon Circulation and...

By: K.-m. Kim; L. Oreopoulos; Y. C. Sud; D. Lee; W. K. Lau; I.-s. Kang

Description: GESTAR, Morgan State University, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. We conduct several sets of simulations with a version of the GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM) equipped with a two-moment cloud microphysical scheme to understand the role of biomass burning (BB) aerosol emissions in Southeast (SE) Asia in the pre-monsoon period February–May. Our experiments are designed so that both direct and indirect aerosol effects can be evaluated. For c...

Albrecht, B.: Aerosols, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, doi:10.1126/science.245.4923.1227, 1989.; Barahona, D. and Nenes, A.: Parameterizing the competition between homogeneous and heterogeneous freezing in cirrus cloud formation – monodisperse ice nuclei, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 369–381, doi:10.5194/acp-9-369-2009, 2009a...

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Drivers of Hemispheric Differences in Return Dates of Mid-latitude...

By: D. Smale; M. Dameris; V. Grewe; H. Garny; G. E. Bodeker

Description: Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt, Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. Chemistry-climate models (CCMs) project an earlier return of northern mid-latitude total column ozone to 1980 values compared to the southern mid-latitudes. The chemical and dynamical drivers of this hemispheric difference are investigated in this study. The hemispheric asymmetry in return dates is a robust result across different CCMs and is quali...

Eyring, V., Chipperfield, M., Giorgetta, M., Kinnison, D. E., Manzini, E., Matthes, K., Newman, P., Pawson, S., Shepherd, T., and Waugh, D.: Overview of the new CCMVal reference and sensitivity simulations in support of upcoming ozone and climate assessments and planned SPARC CCMVal, SPARC Newsletter, 30, 20–26, 2008.; Garny, H., Dameris, M., and Stenke, A.: Impact of prescribed SSTs on climatologies and long-term trends in CCM simulations, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 9, 6017–60...

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Lagrangian Coherent Structures in Tropical Cyclone Intensification...

By: G. Dangelmayr; M. T. Montgomery; B. Rutherford

Description: Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA, USA. Recent work has suggested that tropical cyclones intensify via a pathway of rotating deep moist convection in the presence of enhanced fluxes of moisture from the ocean. The rotating deep convective structures possessing enhanced cyclonic vorticity within their cores have been dubbed Vortical Hot Towers (VHTs). In general, the interaction between VHTs and the system-scale vortex, as well as the corresponding...

Haller, G. and  Poje, A.: Finite time transport in aperiodic flows, Physica D, 119, 352–380, 1997.; Haller, G.: Finding finite-time invariant manifolds in two-dimensional velocity fields, Chaos, 10, 99–108, 2000.;  Haller, G.: Lagrangian coherent structures from approximate velocity data, Phys. Fluids, 14, 1851–1861, 2002.; Bell, M. and Montgomery, M. T.: Sheared deep vortical convection in pre-depression Hagupit during TCS08, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L06802,

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Size-resolved Particulate Water-soluble Organic Compounds in the U...

By: M. Xie; K. Kawamura; S. Hu; J. Li; J. Cao; B. Zhou; G. Wang; Z. an

Description: State Key Laboratory of Loess and Quaternary Geology, Institute of Earth Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi'an 710075, China. Primary (i.e., sugars and sugar alcohols) and secondary water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) (i.e., dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids) were characterised on a molecular level in size-segregated aerosols from the urban and mountain atmosphere of China and from the marine atmosphere in the outflow region of East As...

Blando, J. D., Porcja, R. J., Li, T.-H., Bowman, D., Lioy, P. J., and Turpin, B. J.: Secondary Formation and the Smoky Mountain Organic Aerosol: An Examination of Aerosol Polarity and Functional Group Composition During SEAVS, Environ. Sci. Technol., 32, 604–613, 1998.; Carvalho, A., Pio, C., and Santos, C.: Water-soluble hydroxylated organic compounds in German and Finnish aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 37, 1775–1783, 2003.; Claeys, M., Szmigielski, R., Kourtchev, I., Vande...

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Variability and Trends in Stratospheric No2 in Antarctic Summer, a...

By: H. K. Roscoe; P. A. Cook

Description: British Antarctic Survey, Madingley Rd, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK. NO2 measurements during 1990–2007, obtained from a zenith-sky spectrometer in the Antarctic, are analysed to determine the long-term changes. The changes in midsummer should be indicative of any changes in the Brewer-Dobson circulation. An atmospheric photochemical box model and a radiative transfer model are used to improve the accuracy of determination of the vertical columns fr...

Dobson, G. M. B.: Origin and distribution of polyatomic molecules in the atmosphere, Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A, 236, 187–193, 1956.; Chipperfield, M. P.: Multiannual simulations with a three-dimensional chemical transport model, J. Geophys. Res., 104, D1, 1781–1805, 1999.; Brewer, A. W.: Evidence for a world circulation provided by the measurements of helium and water vapour distribution in the stratosphere, Q. J. Roy Meteor. Soc., 75, 351–363, 1949.; Denis, L., Roscoe, ...

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Data Assimilation of Satellite-retrieved Ozone, Carbon Monoxide an...

By: S. Chabrillat; E. Katragkou; A.-m. Blechschmidt; M. Parrington; R. J. Engelen; I. Bouarar; A. Keppens; M. De Mazière; H. Eskes; M. Crepulja; V. Huijnen; B. Langerock; A. Wagner; M. Suttie; V. H. Peuch; L. Jones; M. Vrekoussis; J. Flemming; M. G. Schultz; A. Inness; A. Richter; F. Hendrick; C. Zerefos; J. Kapsomenakis; V. Thouret; M. Razinger; A. Gaudel; D. Melas

Description: ECMWF, Reading, UK. Daily global analyses and 5-day forecasts are generated in the context of the European Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) project using an extended version of the Integrated Forecasting System (IFS) of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The IFS now includes modules for chemistry, deposition and emission of reactive gases, aerosols, and greenhouse gases, and the 4-dimensional variational...

Andersson, E. and Järvinen, H.: Variational quality control, Q. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc., 125, 697–722, 1999.; Arellano Jr., A. F., Raeder, K., Anderson, J. L., Hess, P. G., Emmons, L. K., Edwards, D. P., Pfister, G. G., Campos, T. L., and Sachse, G. W.: Evaluating model performance of an ensemble-based chemical data assimilation system during INTEX-B field mission, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 5695–5710, doi:10.5194/acp-7-5695-2...

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Aqueous-phase Photooxidation of Levoglucosan – a Mechanistic Study...

By: A. K. Y. Lee; D. Aljawhary; E. L. Mungall; R. Zhao; J. P. D. Abbatt

Description: Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, Canada. Levoglucosan (LG) is a widely employed tracer for biomass burning (BB). Recent studies have shown that LG can react rapidly with hydroxyl (OH) radicals in the aqueous phase despite many mass balance receptor models assuming it to be inert during atmospheric transport. In the current study, aqueous-phase photooxidation of LG by OH radicals was performed in the labo...

Aljawhary, D., Lee, A. K. Y., and Abbatt, J. P. D.: High-resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry (ToF-CIMS): application to study SOA composition and processing., Atmos. Mea. Technol., 6, 3211–3224, 2013.; Allan, J., Delia, A., Coe, H., Bower, K., Alfarra, M., Jimenez, J., Middlebrook, A., Drewnick, F., Onasch, T., Canagaratna, M., Jayne, J., and Worsnop, D.: A generalised method for the extraction of chemically resolved mass spectra from aerodyne aerosol mass s...

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Collision Dynamics and Uptake of Water on Alcohol-covered Ice : Vo...

By: N. Marković; X. Kong; P. Papagiannakopoulos; J. B. C. Pettersson; E. S. Thomson

Description: Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, Atmospheric Science, University of Gothenburg, 412 96, Gothenburg, Sweden. Molecular scattering experiments are used to investigate water interactions with methanol and n-butanol covered ice between 155 K and 200 K. The inelastically scattered and desorbed products of an incident molecular beam are measured and analyzed to illuminate molecular scale processes. The residence time and uptake coefficients o...

Barnes, G. T.: Permeation through monolayers, Colloid. Surface. A, 126, 149–158, 1997.; Barnes, G. T.: The potential for monolayers to reduce the evaporation of water from large water storages, Agr. Water Manage., 95, 339–353, doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2007.12.003, 2008.; Bartels-Rausch, T., Bergeron, V., Cartwright, J. H. E., Escribano, R., Finney, J. L., Grothe, H., Gutiérrez, P. J., Haapala, J., Kuhs, W. F., Petterss...

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Decadal-scale Responses in Middle and Upper Stratospheric Ozone fr...

By: E. E. Remsberg

Description: NASA Langley Research Center, 21 Langley Blvd., Mail Stop 401B, Hampton, VA 23681, USA. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) version 7 (v7) ozone profiles are analyzed for their decadal-scale responses and linear trends in the middle and upper stratosphere for the two periods of 1984 to 1998 and 1991 to 2005. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis is applied to time series of the v7 ozone number density vs. altitude data for a rang...

Baldwin, M. P. and Dunkerton, T. J.: Biennial, quasi-biennial, and decadal oscillations of potential vorticity in the northern stratosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 3919–3928, 1998.; Brasseur, G.: The response of the middle atmosphere to long-term and short-term solar variability: a two-dimensional model, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 23079–23090, doi:10.1029/93JD02406, 1993.; Charlton, A. J. and Polvani, L. M.: A new look at strato...

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Matrix (Multiconfiguration Aerosol Tracker of Mixing State): an Ae...

By: S. E. Schwartz; S. E. Bauer; R. McGraw; R. Ruedy; D. L. Wright; D. Koch; E. R. Lewis; L.-s. Chang

Description: The Earth Institute at Columbia University and NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, USA. A new aerosol microphysical module MATRIX, the Multiconfiguration Aerosol TRacker of mIXing state, and its application in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model (ModelE) are described. This module, which is based on the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), represents nucleation, condensation, coagulation, internal and external mix...

Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S J.: A parameterization of aerosol activation – 1. Single aerosol type, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D6), 6123–6131, 1998.; Abdul-Razzak, H. and Ghan, S.: A Parameterization of Aerosol Activation. Part 2: Multiple Aerosol Types, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 6837–6844, 2000.; Ackermann, I J., Hass, H., Memmesheimer, M., Ebel, A., Binkowski, F S., and Shankar, U.: Modal aerosol dynamics model for Europe: Development and first applications, Atmos. Environ., 3...

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Hygroscopic Growth and Activation of Hulis Particles: Experimental...

By: A. Massling; R. Ocskay; F. Stratmann; E. Nilsson; M. Ziese; T. Hennig; H. Wex; I. Salma

Description: Leibniz-Intitute for Tropospheric Research, Permoser Strasse 15, 04318 Leipzig, Germany. The hygroscopic growth and activation of two HULIS and one Aerosol-Water-Extract sample, prepared from urban-type aerosol, were investigated. All samples were extracted from filters, redissolved in water and atomized for the investigations presented here. The hygroscopic growth measurements were done using LACIS (Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator) together...

Albrecht, B.: Aerosol, cloud microphysics, and fractional cloudiness, Science, 245, 1227–1230, 1989.; Asa-Awuku, A., Nenes, A., Sullivan, A., Hennigan, C., and Weber, R.: Investigation of molar volume and surfactant characteristics of water-soluble organic compounds in biomass burning aerosol, Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss., 7, 3589–3627, 2007.; Bilde, M. and Svenningsson, B.: CCN activation of slightly soluble organics: The importance of small amounts of inorganic salts an...

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Sensitivities of Lagrangian Modeling of Mid-latitude Cirrus Clouds...

By: B. P. Luo; T. Peter; A. K. Miltenberger; E. Kienast-sjögren

Description: Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, ETH Zurich, Switzerland. Simulations of cirrus are subject to uncertainties in model physics and meteorological input data. Here we model cirrus clouds, whose extinction has been measured with an elastic backscatter Lidar at Jungfraujoch research station in the Swiss Alps, and investigate the sensitivities to input data uncertainties (trajectory resolution, unresolved vertical velocities, ice nuclei number ...

Ansmann, A., Wandinger, U., Riebesell, M., Weitkamp, C., and Michaelis, W.: Independent measurement of extinction and backscatter profiles in cirrus clouds by using a combined Raman elastic-backscatter Lidar, Appl. Optics, 31, 7113–7131, 1992.; Baldauf, M., Seifert, A., Förstner, J., Majewski, D., and Raschendorfer, M.: Operational convective-scale numerical weather prediction with the COSMO model: description and sensitivities, Mon. Weather Rev., 139, 3887–3905, 2011.; ...

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Large-eddy Simulation of Mesoscale Dynamics and Entrainment Around...

By: R. Wood; A. H. Berner; C. S. Bretherton

Description: Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA. Large-eddy simulations of a pocket of open cells (POC) based on VOCALS Regional Experiment (REx) Research Flight 06 are analyzed and compared with aircraft observations. A doubly-periodic domain 192 km × 24 km with 125 m horizontal resolution and 5 m vertical resolution near the capping inversion is used. The POC is realized in the model as a fixed 96 km wide region o...

Ackerman, A. S., Kirkpatrick, M., Stevens, D., and Toon, O.: The impact of humidity above stratiform clouds on indirect aerosol climate forcing, Nature, 432, 1014–1017, doi:10.1038/nature03174, 2004.; Ackerman, A. S., vanZanten, M. C., Stevens, B., Savic-Jovcic, V., Bretherton, C. S., Chlond, A., Golaz, J. C., Jiang, H., Khairoutdinov, M., Krueger, S. K., Lewellen, D. C., Lock, A., Moeng, C. H., Nakamura, K., Petters, M. ...

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