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On the Shelf Resonances of the English Channel and Irish Sea : Vol...

By: D. J. Webb

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. The resonances of the English Channel and Irish Sea are investigated using the methods of Webb (2012a) together with an Arakawa C-grid model of the region under study. In the semi-diurnal tidal band, the high tides of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St. Malo are shown to be due to two shelf resonances which strongly couple the two regions. In the diurnal band, the response is complicated by the pre...

Arakawa, A.: Computational design for long-term numerical integration of the equations of fluid motion: Two-dimensional incompressible flow, J. Computat. Phys., 1, 119–143, 1966.; Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V. R.: A Potential Enstrophy and Energy Conserving Scheme for the Shallow Water Equations, Monthly Weather Rev., 109, 19–36, 1981.; Arbic, B. K., St-Laurent, P., Sutherland, G., and Garrett, C.: On the resonance and influence of the tides in Ungava Bay and Hudson Strait, G...

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Technical Note: Animal-borne Ctd-satellite Relay Data Loggers for ...

By: F. Roquet; M. Biuw; P. Lovell; L. Boehme; M. P. Meredith; S. E. Thorpe; J. Nicholson; M. Fedak

Description: NERC Sea Mammal Research Unit, Scottish Oceans Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, KY16,8LB, UK. The increasing need for continuous monitoring of the world oceans has stimulated the development of a range of autonomous sampling platforms. One novel addition to these approaches is a small, relatively inexpensive data-relaying device that can be deployed on marine mammals to provide vertical oceanographic profiles throughout the upper 2000 m o...

Aldrige, H. D. J. N. and Brigham, R. M.: Load carrying and maneuverability in an insectivorous bat: a test of the 5{% rule of radio-telemetry}, J. Mammal., 69, 379–382, 1988.; Alverson, K.: The Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS), Hydro International, 12, 32–33, 2008{a}.; Alverson, K.: Filling the Gaps in GOOS, J. Ocean Technol., 3, 19–23, 2008{b}.; Argos: Argos User's manual, Collecte Localisation Satellites (CLS), 1996.; Biuw, M., Boehme, L., Guinet, C., Hindell, M., ...

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On the Chemical Dynamics of Extracellular Polysaccharides in the H...

By: C. Leck; P. A. Matrai; C. Rauschenberg; Q. Gao

Description: Department of Meteorology, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden. The surface microlayer (SML) represents a unique system of which the physicochemical characteristics may differ from those of the underlying subsurface seawater (SSW). Within the Arctic pack ice area, the SML has been characterized as enriched in small colloids of biological origin, resulting from extracellular polymeric secretions (EPS). During the Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study...

Aluwihare, L. I., Repeta, D. J., and Chen, R. F.: A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface sea water, Nature, 387, 166–169, 1997.; Amon, R. M. W. and Benner, R.: Combined neutral sugars as indicators of the diagenetic state of dissolved organic matter in the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50, 151–169, 2003.; Andreas, E. L. and Monahan, E. C.: The role of whitecap bubbles in air-sea heat and moisture exchange, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 433–4...

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An Eddy Resolving Tidal-driven Model of the South China Sea Assimi...

By: L. Bertino; J. Zhu; F. Counillon; J. Xie

Description: ICCES, Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China. The upper ocean circulation in the South China Sea (SCS) is driven by the Asian monsoon, the Kuroshio intrusion through the Luzon Strait, strong tidal currents, and a complex topography. Here, we demonstrate the benefit of assimilating along-track altimeter data into a nested configuration of the HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model that includes tides. Including tides ...

Counillon, F. and Bertino, L.: Ensemble optimal interpolation: multivariate properties in the Gulf of Mexico, Tellus, 61A, 296–308, 2009a.; Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A. Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, vol. 2: Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 61, U.S. Gov. Print. Off., Washington, D.C., 182 pp., 2006.; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation a...

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Ecological Niche of Three Teuthophageous Odontocetes in the Northw...

By: A. Gannier; E. Praca

Description: Centre de Recherche sur les Cétacés – Marineland, Antibes, France. In the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, sperm whales, pilot whales and Risso's dolphins prey on cephalopods exclusively or preferentially. In order to evaluate their competition, we modelled their habitat suitability with the Ecological Niche Factor Analysis (ENFA) and compared their ecological niche using a discriminant analysis. We used a long term (1995–2005) small boat data set, with ...

Antoine, D., André, J.-M., and Morel, A.: Oceanic primary production : 2. Estimation at global scale from satellite (coastal zone color scanner) chlorophyll, Glob. Biogeochem. Cycl., 10, 57–69, 1996.; Astruc, G. and Beaubrun, P.: Do mediterranean cetaceans diets overlap for the same ressources?, Eur. Res. Cet., 19, p 81, 2005.; Azzelino, A., Airoldi, S., Gasparini, S., Patti, P., and Sturlese, A.: Physical habitat of cetaceans along the continental slope of the western L...

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Structure of Phytoplankton (Continuous Plankton Recorder and Seawi...

By: R. D. Pingree; S. C. Leterme

Description: Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, The Laboratory, Citadel Hill, Plymouth, UK. All marine organisms are affected to some extent by the movement and thermal properties of oceanic currents. However phytoplankton, because of its small size is most directly coupled to the physical environment. The intense hydrodynamic activity observed in the Northwest Atlantic Shelves Province makes this region especially intriguing from the point of view of p...

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An Observing System for the Collection of Fishery and Oceanographi...

By: A. Belardinelli; P. Falco; N. Cingolani; A. Santojanni; E. Arneri; A. Russo

Description: Istituto di Scienze Marine- Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sede di Ancona, Largo Fiera della Pesca 60125, Ancona, Italy. Fishery Observing System (FOS) was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP). The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters also ...

Agenbag, J. J., Richardson, A. J., Demarcq, H., Fréon, P., Weeks, S., and Shillington, F. A.: Relating local abundance of South African pelagic fish species to environmental variables using generalized additive and linear models, Progr. in Oceanogr., 59, 275–300, 2003.; Agostini, V. N. and Bakun, A.: Ocean triads' in the Mediterranean Sea: physical mechanisms potentially structuring reproductive habitat suitability (with example application to European anchovy, \textitEn...

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Eddy Measurements, Coastal Turbulence and Statistics in the Gulf o...

By: A. Matulka; E. Sekula; A. Platonov; P. Fraunie; J. M. Redondo

Description: Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain. The advances in radar sensors may be applied to study the flow in the Region of Fresh Water Influence (ROFI) region of the ocean. The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool that may be used to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution. Oil spills and natural slicks may be detected and processed with advanced computer techniques to reveal vortex dynam...

Arnau, P. A.: Aspectos de la variabilidad de mesoescala de la circulacion marina en la plataforma continental catalana, Ph.D. thesis, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, UPC, 600 pp., 2000 (in Catalan).; Bezerra, M. O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A., and Redondo, J. M.: Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis, Appl. Sci. Res., 59, 191–204, doi:10....

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Comparing Historical and Modern Methods of Sea Surface Temperature...

By: J. B. R. Matthews

Description: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements have been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the post-industrial period. Today most measurements come from ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and in engine cooling water intakes. Engine intake t...

Bernaerts, A.: How useful are Atlantic sea-surface temperatures taken during World War II, in: Proceedings Oceanology International '98, Brighton, UK, 10–13 March 1998, Oceanology International, 1998.; Brooks, C. F.: Observing water-surface temperatures at sea, Mon. Weather Rev., 54, 241–253, doi:2.0.CO;2>10.1175/1520-0493(1926)54\textless241:OWTAS\textgreater2.0.CO;2, 1926.; Collins, C. A., Giovando, L. F...

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First Laboratory Study of Air–sea Gas Exchange at Hurricane Wind S...

By: B. Jähne; K. E. Krall

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 229, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany. In a pilot study conducted in October and November 2011, air–sea gas transfer velocities of the two sparingly soluble trace gases hexafluorobenzene and 1,4-difluorobenzene were measured in the unique high-speed wind-wave tank at Kyoto University, Japan. This air–sea interaction facility is capable of producing hurricane strength wind speeds ...

McNeil, C. and D'Asaro, E.: Parameterization of air sea gas fluxes at extreme wind speeds, J. Marine Syst., 66, 110–121, 2007.; Memery, L. and Merlivat, L.: Modelling of gas flux through bubbles at the air-water interface, Tellus B, 37, 272–285, 1985.; Ambrose, D., Ewing, M. B., Ghiassee, N. B., and Sanchez Ochoa, J. C.: The ebulliometric method of vapour pressure measurement: vapour pressures of benzene, hexafluorobenzene, and naphthalene, J. Chem. Thermodyn., 22, 589–6...

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Water Level Oscillations in Monterey Bay and Harbor : Volume 11, I...

By: R. Heitsenrether; W. V. Sweet; J. Park

Description: National Park Service, 950 N. Krome Ave, Homestead, FL, USA. Seiches are normal modes of water bodies responding to geophysical forcings with potential to significantly impact ecology and maritime operations. Analysis of high-frequency (1 Hz) water level data in Monterey, California, identifies harbor modes between 10 and 120 s that are attributed to specific geographic features. It is found that modal amplitude modulation arises from cro...

AMS: Seiches in Lake Garda, Mon. Weather Rev., 31, 532–533, doi:10.1175/1520-0493(1903)31[532b:SILG]2.0.CO;2, 1903.; AMS: The seiche and its mechanical explanation, Mon. Weather Rev., 34, 226, doi:2.0.CO;2>10.1175/1520-0493(1906)34<226b:TSAIME>2.0.CO;2, 1906.; Bloomfield, P.: Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction, Wiley...

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N/P Ratio of Nutrient Uptake in the Baltic Sea : Volume 7, Issue 5...

By: H. Bi; L. Jonasson; Z. Wan

Description: Centre for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvey 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The N/P ratio of nutrient uptake, the change of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) relative to the change of dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), is a key parameter for many ecological models. In the Baltic Sea ecosystem, the N/P ratio of nutrient uptake varies among different basins and different seasons. The N/P ratio of nutrient alteration, i.e., the r...

Allen, J. I., Holt, T. J., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Marine Syst., 68, 381–404, 2007.; Anderson, T. R. and Pondaven, P.: Non-redfield carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Sargasso Sea: pelagic imbalances and export flux, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 50, 573–591, 2003.; Arrigo, K. R., Robinson, D. H., Worthen, D. L., Dunbar, R. B., ...

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The Role of Continental Shelves in Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling : V...

By: K. Fennel

Description: Dalhousie University, Department of Oceanography, Halifax, Canada. Continental shelves play a key role in the cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Here the physical transport and biogeochemical transformation processes affecting the fluxes into and out of continental shelf systems are reviewed, and their role in the global cycling of both elements is discussed. Uncertainties in observation-based estimates of nitrogen and carbon fluxes mostly r...

Belkin, I. M.: Propagation of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1990s around the northern North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08306, doi:10.1029/2003GL019334, 2004.; Biscaye, P. E., Flagg, C. N., and Falkowski, P. G.: The shelf edge exchange processes experiment, SEEP-II: An introduction to hypotheses, results and conclusions, Deep Sea Res. Pt. II, 41, 231–252, 1994.; Boyd, P. W., Watson, A. J., Law, C. S., Abraham...

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Thermohaline Properties in the Eastern Mediterranean in the Last T...

By: D. Hainbucher; G. Civitarese; M. Bensi; V. Cardin; A. Rubino

Description: OGS, Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Borgo Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34018 Sgonico, Trieste, Italy. Temperature, salinity and oxygen data collected during April and June 2011 (M84/3 and P414 cruises respectively) are analysed to derive the oceanographic characteristics of the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) basin. These observed characteristics are compared with those from previous cruises over the period 1987–2011. As a result, the...

Bensi, M., Rubino, A., Cardin, V., Hainbucher, D., and Mancero-Mosquera, I.: Structure and variability of the abyssal water masses in the Ionian Sea in the period 2003-2010, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 1–13, doi:10.1029/2012JC008178, 2013.; Bignami, F., Marullo, S., Santoleri, R., and Schiano M. E.: Longwave radiation budget in the Mediterranean Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 100, 2501–2514, 1995.; Cardin, V. and Gačić, M.: Long-term...

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Obstacles and Benefits of the Implementation of a Reduced Rank Smo...

By: J.-m. Brankart; E. Cosme; P. Brasseur; N. Freychet; E. Kpemlie

Description: Université Joseph Fourier – Grenoble 1, LEGI, Grenoble, France. Most of oceanographic operational centers use three-dimensional data assimilation schemes to produce reanalyses. We investigate here the benefits of a smoother, i.e. a four-dimensional formulation of statistical assimilation. A square-root sequential smoother is implemented with a tropical Atlantic ocean circulation model. A simple twin experiment is performed to investigate its benefits,...

Houtekamer, P. L., Mitchell, H. L., and Deng, X.: Model error representation in an operational Ensemble Kalman Filter, Mon. Weather Rev., 137, 2126–2143, 2009.; Allen, M. R., Lawrence, S. P., Murray, M. J., Mutlow, C. T., Stockdale, T. N., Llewellynjones, D. T., and Anderson, D. L. T.: Control of tropical instability waves in the pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett, 22 , 2581–2584, 1995.; Anderson, B. D. O. and Moore, J. B.: Optimal Filtering, Prentice-Hall, 357pp., 1979.; Brank...

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Eddy Characteristics in the Northern South China Sea as Inferred f...

By: B. Jin; R. Zhang; J. X. Li

Description: Institute of Meteorology, PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 211101, China. Cyclones and anticyclones from large scale to submesoscale on the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) have been statistically characterized based on the satellite-tracked Lagrangian drifter data using a geometric eddy identification method. There are totally 1972 eddies identified, 4/5 of which are anticyclonic eddies. If the submesoscale eddies are ...

Aken, H. M. v.: Surface currents in the Bay of Biscay as observed with drifters between 1995 and 1999, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 49, 1071–1086, 2002.; Boebel, O., Lutjeharms, J., Schmid, C., Zenk, W., Rossby, T., and Barron, C.: The cape cauldron: a regime of turbulent inter-ocean exchange, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 50, 57–86, 2003.; Chaigneau, A. and Pizarro, O.: Eddy characteistics in the Eastern South Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C06005,

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The Role of Atmosphere and Ocean Physical Processes in Enso in a P...

By: M. Collins; G. J. Van Oldenborgh; B. J. J. M. Van Den Hurk; S. Y. Philip

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute of Meteorology, De Bilt, The Netherlands. We examine the behaviour of the El Niño – Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in an ensemble of global climate model simulations with perturbations to parameters in the atmosphere and ocean components respectively. The influence of the uncertainty in these parametrisations on ENSO are investigated systematically. The ensemble exhibits a range of different ENSO behaviour in terms of the amplit...

AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: ENSO simulation in coupled ocean-atmosphere models: are the current models better?, Clim. Dynam., 27, 1–15, 2006.; AchutaRao, K. and Sperber, K. R.: Simulation of the El Niõ Southern Oscillation: Results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Clim. Dynam., 19, 191–209, 2002.; Annan, J. D., Hargreaves, J. C., Ohgaito, R., Abe-Ouchi, A., and Emori, S.: Efficiently constraining climate sensitivity with ensembles of paleoclimate sim...

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Enhancing Temporal Correlations in Eof Expansions for the Reconstr...

By: J.-m. Beckers; D. Sirjacobs; A. Barth; A. Alvera-azcárate

Description: AGO-GHER, University of Liège, Allée du Six Août, 17, Sart Tilman, Liège, 4000, Belgium. DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) is an EOF-based technique for the reconstruction of missing data in geophysical fields, such as those produced by clouds in sea surface temperature satellite images. A technique to reduce spurious time variability in DINEOF reconstructions is presented. The reconstruction of these images within a long time se...

Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J. M.: Reconstruction of incomplete oceanographic data sets using {E}mpirical {O}rthogonal {F}unctions. {A}pplication to the {A}driatic {S}ea surface temperature., Ocean Model., 9, 325–346, 2005.; Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Beckers, J. M., and Weisberg, R. H.: Multivariate Reconstruction of Missing Data in Sea Surface Temperature, Chlorophyll and Wind Satellite Fields, J. Geophys. Res., 112, C03008, doi:10.1029...

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137Cs Off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan – Model Based Estimates of Dil...

By: I. Kriest; H. Dietze

Description: IFM-GEOMAR, Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, Düsternbrooker Weg 20, 24105 Kiel, Germany. In the aftermath of an earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 radioactive 137Cs was discharged from a damaged nuclear power plant to the sea off Fukushima Dai-ichi, Japan. Here we explore its dilution and fate with a state-of-the-art global ocean general circulation model, which is eddy-resolving in the region of interest. We find apparent consistenc...

Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., Garcia, H. E., and Levitus, S.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Volume 2: Salinity. NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 182 pp., 2006.; Bailly du Bois, P., Laguionie, P., Boust, D., Korsakissok, I., Didier, D., and Fiévet, B.: Estimation of marine source-term following Fukushima Dai-ichi accident, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity,

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On the Modulation of the Periodicity of the Faroe Bank Channel Ove...

By: I. Fer; C. Guo; K. M. H. Larsen; T. Rasmussen; E. Darelius

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, Bergen, Norway. The Faroe Bank Channel (FBC) is one of the major pathways where dense, cold water formed in the Nordic Seas flows southward towards the north Atlantic. The plume region downstream of the FBC sill is characterized by high mesoscale variability, quasi-regular oscillations and intense mixing. Here, one year-long time series of velocity and temperature from eigh...

Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, Tech. rep., NOAA, technical memorandum NESDIS NGDC-24, 19 pp., 2009.; Bishop, S. P., Watts, D. R., and Donohue, K. A.: Divergent eddy heat fluxes in the Kuroshio extension at 144°–148° E. Part I: Mean structure, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 1533–1550, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-12-0221.1, 2013.; Bleck, R.: An oceanic genera...

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