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Accuracy of the Mean Sea Level Continuous Record with Future Altim...

By: M. Ablain; L. Zawadzki

Description: Collecte Localisation Satellite (CLS), Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. The current mean sea level (MSL) continuous record, essential for the understanding of climate evolution, is computed with the altimetric measurements of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission, succeeded by Jason-1 and later Jason-2. The accurate continuity of the record is ensured by the conservation of the historical TOPEX orbit, but also by calibration phases between the success...

Ablain, M.: Validation Report: WP2500 Regional SSH Bias Corrections between Altimetry Missions, available at: http://www.esa-sealevel-cci.org/webfm_send/182 (last access: 20 May 2015), 2013.; Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:

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A New Method for Forming Approximately Neutral Surfaces : Volume 5...

By: D. R. Jackett; T. J. McDougall; A. Klocker

Description: CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Castray Esplanade, TAS 7000, Australia. We introduce a simple algorithm to improve existing density surfaces to ensure that the resulting surfaces are as close to neutral as possible. This means the slopes at any point on the surfaces are close to neutral tangent planes – the directions along which layered stirring and mixing occurs – minimizing the fictitious diapycnal diffusivity. Inverse techniques and layered m...

McDougall, T J.: Neutral surfaces, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 17, 1950–1964, 1987.; de~Szoeke, R A., Springer, S R., and Oxilia, D M.: Orthobaric Density: A Thermodynamic Variable for Ocean Circulation Studies, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 2830–2852, 2000.; Eden, C. and Willebrand, J.: Neutral density revisited, Deep Sea Research II, 46, 33–54, 1999.; Gouretski, V V. and Koltermann, K P.: WOCE global hydrographic climatology, Tech. rep., Bundesamtes für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrograph...

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Descent and Mixing of the Overflow Plume from Storfjord in Svalbar...

By: B. Ådlandsvik; I. Fer

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Storfjorden in the Svalbard Archipelago is a sill-fjord that produces significant volumes of dense, brine-enriched shelf water through ice formation. The dense water produced in the fjord overflows the sill and can reach deep into the Fram Strait. For conditions corresponding to a moderate ice production year, the pathway of the overflow, its descent and evolving water mass properties due to m...

Sternberg, R. W., Aagaard, K., Cacchione, D., Wheatcroft, R. A., Beach, R. A., Roach, A. T., and Marsden, M. A. H.: Long-term near-bed observations of velocity and hydrographic properties in the northeast Barents Sea with implications for sediment transport, Cont. Shelf Res., 21, 509–529, 2001.; Turner, J. S.: Turbulent entrainment: the development of the entrainment assumption, and its application to geophysical flows, J. Fluid Mech., 173, 431–471, 1986.; Aagaard, K., C...

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Coastal Observing and Forecasting System for the German Bight – Es...

By: J. Staneva; J. Schulz-stellenfleth; S. Grayek; J. Seemann; E. V. Stanev; W. Petersen

Description: Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. A coastal observing system for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) aims at construction of a long-term observatory for the German part of the North Sea, elements of which will be deployed as prototype modules in Arctic coastal waters. At present a coastal prediction system deployed in the area of the German Bight integrates near r...

Backhaus, J. O. and Maier-Reimer, E.: On seasonal circulation in the North Sea, in: North Sea Dynamics, edited by: Sündermann, J. and Lenz, W., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 693 pp., 1983.; Barrick, D. E., Evans, M. W., and Weber, B. L.: Ocean surface currents mapped by radar, Science, 198(4313), 138–144, 1977.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., and Weisberg, R.: Assimilation of high-frequency radar currents in a nested model of the West Florida Shelf, J. ...

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The Subtropical Deacon Cells : Volume 3, Issue 4 (21/07/2006)

By: J. A. Polton; D. P. Marshall

Description: Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, UK. The circulation of the subtropical gyres can be decomposed into a horizontal recirculation along contours of constant Bernoulli potential and an overturning circulation across these contours. While the geometry and topology of Bernoulli contours is more complicated in the subtropical gyres than in the Southern Ocean, these subtropical overturning circulations are very much analogous to the Deacon cel...

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Assimilating Globcolour Ocean Colour Data Into a Pre-operational P...

By: K. P. Edwards; J. Demaria; D. Lea; R. M. Barciela; M. J. Martin; D. A. Ford

Description: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. As part of the GlobColour project, daily chlorophyll-a observations, derived using remotely sensed ocean colour data from the MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, are produced. The ability of these products to be assimilated into a pre-operational global coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been tested, on both a hindcast and near-real-time basis, and the impact on the system assessed. The assimila...

Allen, J. I., Eknes, M., and Evensen, G.: An Ensemble Kalman Filter with a complex marine ecosystem model: hindcasting phytoplankton in the Cretan Sea, Ann. Geophys., 21, 399–411, doi:10.5194/angeo-21-399-2003, 2003.; Anderson, L. A., Robinson, A. R., and Lozano, C. J.: Physical and biological modeling in the Gulf Stream region – Part 1: Data assimilation methodology, Deep-Sea Res. I, 47, 1787–1827, 2000.; Anderson,...

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Measuring Air–sea Gas-exchange Velocities in a Large-scale Annular...

By: M. Bopp; J. Williams; K. E. Krall; F. Helleis; B. Jähne; E. Mesarchaki; C. Kräuter

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie (Otto-Hahn-Institut) Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. In this study we present gas-exchange measurements conducted in a large-scale wind–wave tank. Fourteen chemical species spanning a wide range of solubility (dimensionless solubility, Α = 0.4 to 5470) and diffusivity (Schmidt number in water, Scw = 594 to 1194) were examined under various turbulent (u10 = 0.73 to 13.2 m s−...

Benkelberg, H. J., Hamm, S., and Warneck, P.: Henry's law coefficients for aqueous solutions of acetone, acetaldehyde and acetonitrile, and equilibrium constants for the addition compounds of acetone and acetaldehyde with bisulfite, J. Atmos. Chem., 20, 17–34, doi:10.1007/Bf01099916, 1995.; Betterton, E. A. and Hoffmann, R. M.: Henry's law constants of some environmentally important aldehydes., Environ. Sci. Technol., 22, ...

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Observations of Turbulence Beneath Sea Ice in Southern McMurdo Sou...

By: N. J. Robinson; T. G. Haskell; M. J. M. Williams; C. L. Stevens

Description: National Institute for Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Greta Point Wellington, New Zealand. The first turbulence profiler observations beneath land fast sea ice which is directly adjacent to an Antarctic ice shelf are described. The stratification in the 325 m deep water column consisted of a layer of supercooled water in the upper 40 m lying above a quasi-linearly stratified water column with a sharp step in density at mid-depth. Turbulent energy...

Albrecht, N., Vennell, R., Williams, M., Stevens, C., Langhorne, P., Leonard, G., and Haskell, T.: Observation of sub-inertial internal tides in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L24606, doi:10.1029/2006GL027377, 2006.; Arrigo, K.R., van Dijken, G., and Long, M.: Coastal Southern Ocean: A strong anthropogenic CO2 sink, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L21602, doi:10.1029/2008GL035624, 208.; Dempsey, D., Langhorne, P. J., Robinson, N. J., Williams, M....

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In Situ Determination of the Remote Sensing Reflectance: an Inter-...

By: K. Ruddick; I. Ansko; G. Moore; J. Icely; G. Zibordi; S. Kratzer; A. Reinart

Description: Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre, Ispra, Italy. Inter-comparison of data products from simultaneous measurements performed with independent systems and methods is a viable approach to assess the consistency of data and additionally to investigate uncertainties. Within such a context the inter-comparison called Assessment of In Situ Radiometric Capabilities for Coastal Water Remote Sensing Applications (ARC) was c...

Achard, F., Eva, H. D., Stibig, H. J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., and Malingreau, J.P.: Determination of deforestation rates of the world's humid tropical forests, Science, 297, 999–1002, 2002.; Austin, R. W.: The remote sensing of spectral radiance from below the ocean surface, in: Optical Aspects of Oceanography, Academic Press, 1974.; Barton, I. J., Minnet, P. J., Maillet, K. A., Donlon, C. J., Hook, S. J., Jessup, A. T., and Nightingale, T. J.: The Miami2...

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Near-surface Diurnal Warming Simulations: Validation with High Res...

By: B. Ward; G. A. Wick; B. Scanlon

Description: School of Physics and Ryan Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland. Sea surface temperature (SST) is an important property for governing the exchange of energy between the ocean and the atmosphere. Common in-situ methods of measuring SST often require a cool-skin and warm-layer adjustment in the presence of diurnal warming effects. A critical requirement for an ocean sub-model is that it can simulate the chang...

Agrawal, Y. C., Terray, E. A., Donelan, M. A., Hwang, P. A., A. J. Williams III, Drennan, W. M., Kahma, K. K., and Kitaigorodskii, S. A.: Enhanced dissipation of kinetic energy beneath surface waves, Nature, 359, 219–220, 1992.; Coppin, P. A. and Bradley, E. F.: Ocean albedo values for TOGA-COARE: a comparison of 25 measurements and models, in: IAPSO Proceedings, vol. 19, p. 428, 1995.; Craig, P. D. and Banner, M. L.: Modelling wave-enhanced turbulence in the ocean surfa...

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Dineof Reconstruction of Clouded Images Including Error Maps – App...

By: A. Alvera-azcárate; A. Barth; J.-m. Beckers

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, MARE, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman B5, 4000 Liège, Belgium. We present an extension to the Data INterpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions (DINEOF) technique which allows not only to fill in clouded images but also to provide an estimation of the error covariance of the reconstruction. This additional information is obtained by an analogy with optimal interpolation. It is shown that the error fields can be...

Lawson, C. and Hanson, R.: Solving Least square problems, Prentice Hall, 1974.; Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Rixen, M., and Beckers, J.-M.: Reconstruction of incomplete oceanographic data sets using Empirical Orthogonal Functions. Application to the Adriatic Sea, Ocean Modelling, 9, 325–346, 2005.; Alvera-Azcárate, A., Barth, A., Beckers, J. M., and Weisberg, R. H.: Multivariate Reconstruction of Missing Data in Sea Surface Temperature, Chlorophyll and Wind Satellite ...

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Antarctic Circumpolar Transport and the Southern Mode: a Model Inv...

By: Joanne Williams; B. A. De Cuevas; A. C. Coward; C. W. Hughes

Description: School of Environmental Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK. It is well-established that, at periods shorter than a year, variations in Antarctic circumpolar transport are reflected in a barotropic mode, known as the southern mode, in which sea level and bottom pressure varies coherently around Antarctica. Here, we use two multidecadal ocean model runs to investigate the behaviour of the southern mode at timescales on which dens...

Allison, L. C., Johnson, H. L., and Marshall, D. P.: Spin-up and adjustment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and global pycnocline, J. Mar. Res., 69, 167–189, 2011.; Aoki, S.: Coherent sea level response to the Antarctic Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1950, doi:10.1029/2002GL015733, 2002.; Blaker, A. T., Hirschi, J. J.-M., McCarthy, G., Sinha, B., Taws, S., Marsh, R., Coward, A., and de Cuevas, B.: Historical ...

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On the Assimilation of Ice Velocity and Concentration Data Into La...

By: T. Fichefet; V. Dulière

Description: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut d'Astronomie et de Géophysique Georges LemaÎtre, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate...

Cavalieri, D., Parkinson, C., and Vinnikov, K.: 30-Year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 18, doi:10.1029/2003GL018031, 2003.; Comiso, J.: A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1956, doi:10.1029/2002GL015650, 2002.; Comiso, J. and Steffen, J.: Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications, J. Geophys. Res., 1...

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Near-surface Measurements of Sea Spray Aerosol Production Over Whi...

By: R. W. Pascal; G. De Leeuw; S. J. Norris; B. Brooks; I. M. Brooks; B. I. Moat; M. J. Yelland

Description: School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, UK. Simultaneous measurements of near-surface aerosol (0.12 < R < 9.25 μm) and bubble spectra (13 < R < 620 μm) were made during five buoy deployments in the open ocean of the North Atlantic and used to estimate aerosol fluxes per unit area of whitecap. The measurements were made during two cruises as part of the Sea Spray, Gas Flux, and Whitecaps (SEASAW) project, a UK contribution to t...

Andreas, E. L.: A review of the sea spray generation function for the open ocean, in: Atmosphere-Ocean Interactions, edited by: W. Perrie, 1, 1–46, WIT Press, Southampton, UK, 2002.; Andreas, E. L., Jones, K. F., and Fairall C. W.: Production velocity of sea spray droplets, J. Geophys. Res., 115, C12065, doi:10.1029/2010JC006458, 2010.; Anguelova, M. D. and Webster, F.,: Whitecap coverage from satellite measurements: A f...

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Corrigendum to Observations of a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom Onset ...

By: A. Olita; A. Ribotti; J. Tintoré; L. Fazioli; R. Sorgente; S. Cusí; S. Sparnocchia

Description: CNR-IAMC, Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, Oristano Section, Torregrande (OR), Italy. No abstract available.

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Investigation of Suitable Sites for Wave Energy Converters Around ...

By: E. Foti; L. Cavallaro; D. Vicinanza; C. Iuppa

Description: Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Catania Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania, Italy. An analysis of wave energy along the coasts of Sicily (Italy) is presented with the aim of selecting possible sites for the implementation of wave energy converters (WECs). The analysis focuses on the selection of hotspot areas of energy concentration. A third-generation model was adopted to reconstruct the wave data along the coast over a pe...

Azzellino, A., Conley, D., Vicinanza, D., and Kofoed, J.: Marine renewable energies: perspectives and implications for marine ecosystems, The Scientific World Journal, 2013, 547563, doi:10.1155/2013/547563, 2013{a}.; Azzellino, A., Ferrante, V., Kofoed, J. P., Lanfredi, C., and Vicinanza, D.: Optimal siting of offshore wind-power combined with wave energy through a marine spatial planning approach, International Journal o...

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Nesting Operational Forecasting Models in the Eastern Mediterranea...

By: R. Lardner; N. Skliris; A. Lascaratos; A. Mantziafou; S.S. Sofianos; D. Hayes; G. Zodiatis; G. Georgiou

Description: Ocean Physics and Modelling Group, University of Athens, Greece, University Campus, BUILD PHYS-5, Athens 15784, Greece. Modern ocean operational systems involve different groups and tools, in different regions and scales. Blending all these in a unique system with reliable forecasting capabilities is an important task. The efficiency of nesting procedures between different scale and resolution models are crucial in determining whether the dynamics at the...

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A Review of the Role of Submarine Canyons in Deep-ocean Exchange w...

By: X. Durrieu De Madron; S. E. Allen

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Science, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Rd, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, Canada. Cross shelf-break exchange is limited by the tendency of geostrophic flow to follow bathymetric contours, not cross them. However, small scale topography, such as canyons, can reduce the local lengthscale of the flow and increase the local Rossby number. These higher Rossby numbers mean the flow is no longer purely geostrophic and significant...

Aagaard, K. and Roach, A. T.: Arctic ocean-shelf exchange: Measurements in Barrow Canyon, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 18163–18175, 1990.; Allen, S. E.: Topographically generated, subinertial flows within a finite length canyon, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 26, 1608–1632, 1996.; Allen, S. E.: On subinertial flow in submarine canyons: Effect of Geometry, J. Geophys. Res., 105, 1285–1297, 2000.; Allen, S. E.: Restrictions on deep flow across the shelf-break, Surv. Geophys., 25, 221–247, 2...

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A Global Comparison of Argo and Satellite Altimetry Observations :...

By: G. Larnicol; S. Guinehut; P.-y. Le Traon; A. -l. Dhomps

Description: CLS, Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. Differences, similarities and complementarities between Sea Level Anomalies (SLA) deduced from altimeter measurements and dynamic height anomalies (DHA) calculated from Argo in situ temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles are globally analyzed. SLA and DHA agree remarkably well and, compared to previous studies, Argo dataset allows an improvement in the coherence between SL...

Antonov, J. I., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: Salinity. Vol. 2, World Ocean Atlas 2005, NOAA Atlas NESDIS, 65, 182 pp., 2006.; AVISO: Ssalto/Duacs user Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS, Edition 2.2, 2010.; Bell, M. J., Lefebvre, M., Le Traon, P. Y., Smith, N., and Wilmer-Becker, K.: The Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment, Oceanography, 22(3), 14–21, 2009.; Cazenave, A., Dominh, K., Gui...

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Characterisation and Quantification of Regional Diurnal Sst Cycles...

By: J. L. Høyer; I. Karagali

Description: DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Building 125, Roskilde, 4000, Denmark. Hourly SST fields from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) offer a unique opportunity for the characterisation and quantification of the diurnal cycle of SST in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Northern European Shelf seas. Six years of SST fields from the SEVIRI dataset are validated against th...

Eastwood, S., Le Borgne, P., Péré, S., and Poulter, D.: Diurnal variability in sea surface in the Arctic, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 2594–2602, 2011.; Bellenger, H. and Duvel, J. P.: An analysis of ocean diurnal warm layers over tropical oceans, J. Climate, 22, 3629–3646, 2009.; Bellenger, H., Takayabu, Y. N., Ushiyama, T., and Yoneyama, K.: Role of diurnal warm layers in the diurnal cycle of convection over the tropical Indian Ocean during MISMO, Mon. Weather Rev., 138...

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