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The Vertical Structure of Oceanic Rossby Waves: a Comparison of Hi...

By: R. Tailleux; F. K. Hunt; J. J.-m. Hirschi

Description: Ocean and Earth Science, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK. Tests of the new Rossby wave theories that have been developed over the past decade to account for discrepancies between theoretical wave speeds and those observed by satellite altimeters have focused primarily on the surface signature of such waves. It appears, however, that the surface signature of the waves acts only as a rather weak constrai...

Anderson, D. L. and Gill, A. E.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with application to upwelling, Deep-Sea Res. , 22, 583–596, 1975.; Anderson, D. L. and Killworth, P. D.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean, with topography, Deep-Sea Res., 24, 709–732, 1977.; Aoki, K., Kubokawa, A., Sasaki, H., and Sasai, Y.: Mid-latitude Baroclinic Rossby wave in a high-resolution OGCM Simulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2264–2279, 2009.; Barnier, B.: Forcing the Ocean, in: Ocean Modelling and ...

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On the Use of the Stokes Number to Explain Frictional Tidal Dynami...

By: A. J. Souza

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. In recent years coastal oceanographers have suggested using the Strouhal number or its inverse, the Stokes number, to describe the effect of bottom boundary layer turbulence on the vertical structure of both density and currents. These are defined as the ratios of the frictional depth (Δ) to the water column depth (h) or vice versa. Although many res...

Arakawa, A.: Design of the UCLA general circulation model, Tech. Rep. 7, Department of Meteorology, University of California, 1972.; Baumert, H. and Radach, G.: Hysteresis of turbulent kinetic energy in nonrotational tidal flows: A model study, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3669–3677, 1992.; Burchard, H.: Combined effects of wind, tide, and horizontal density gradients on stratification in estuaries and coastal seas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2117–2136, 2009.; Burchard, H. and Het...

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Distribution of Overwintering Calanus in the North Norwegian Sea :...

By: J. M. Pedersen; T. Semenova; D. Slagstad; A. Timonin; A. Edvardsen

Description: Department of Aquatic BioSciences, Norwegian College of Fishery Science, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway. During winter 2003 and 2004, zooplankton and hydrographic data were collected in the northern parts of the Norwegian Sea (68–72° N, 8–17° E) west of the Norwegian shelf break at depths down to 1800 m. The results cover both inter and intra annual changes of hydrography and distribution of Calanus spp. For the whole survey area, ave...

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Variability of Water Mass Properties in the Strait of Sicily in Su...

By: E. M. Quinci; F. Placenti; B. Patti; G. Basilone; I. Fontana; G. Tranchida; M. Barra; S. Mazzola; A. Bonanno; S. Genovese; G. Giacalone; G. Buscaino; R. Mifsud; M. Di Bitetto; R. Ferreri; S. Aronica

Description: Istituto per l'Ambiente Marino Costiero (IAMC) of the Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Detached Units of Capo Granitola (TP) and Mazara del Vallo (TP), Italy. The Strait of Sicily plays a crucial role in determining the water mass exchanges and related properties between western and eastern Mediterranean. The presence of sills to the east and west of the Strait of Sicily and the complex seabed topography modulate the thermohaline circulation...

Basilone, G., Bonanno, A., Patti, B., Mazzola, S., Barra, M., Cuttitta, A., and McBride, R.: Spawning site selection by European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in relation to oceanographic conditions in the Strait of Sicily, Fisheries Oceanography, 22, 309–323, 2013.; Béranger, K., Mortier, L., Gasparini, G. P., Gervasio, L., Astraldi, L., and Crépon, M.: The dynamics of the Sicily Strait: a comprehensive study from observations and models, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 51, 41...

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Characterisation and Quantification of Regional Diurnal Sst Cycles...

By: J. L. Høyer; I. Karagali

Description: DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Building 125, Roskilde, 4000, Denmark. Hourly SST (sea surface temperature) fields from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) offer a unique opportunity for the characterisation and quantification of the diurnal cycle of SST in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the northern European shelf seas. Six years of SST fields from SEVIRI are valida...

Bellenger, H. and Duvel, J. P.: An analysis of ocean diurnal warm layers over tropical oceans, J. Climate, 22, 3629–3646, 2009.; Bellenger, H., Takayabu, Y. N., Ushiyama, T., and Yoneyama, K.: Role of diurnal warm layers in the diurnal cycle of convection over the tropical Indian Ocean during MISMO, Mon. Weather Rev., 138, 2426–2433, 2010.; Castro, S., Wick, G., and Buck, J. J. H.: Comparison of diurnal warming estimates from unpumped ARGO data and SEVIRI satellite obser...

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Variability of Synoptic-scale Quasi-stationary Thermohaline Strati...

By: U. Lips; T. Liblik

Description: Marine Systems Institute, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia Road 15a, 12618 Tallinn, Estonia. We present and analyze high-resolution observational data of thermohaline structure and currents acquired in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea), using an autonomous buoy profiler and bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler during July–August 2009. Vertical profiles of temperature and salinity were measured in the upper 50-m layer with a 3 h time...

Alenius, P., Myrberg, K., and Nekrasov, A.: The physical oceanography of the Gulf of Finland: a review, Boreal. Env. Res., 3, 97–125, 1998.; Alenius, P., Nekrasov, A., and Myrberg, K.: Variability of the baroclinic Rossby radius in the Gulf of Finland, Cont. Shelf Res., 23, 563–573, 2003.; Chubarenko, I. and Demchenko, N.: On contribution of horizontal and intra-layer convection to the formation of the Baltic Sea cold intermediate layer, Ocean Sci., 6, 285–299,

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Accuracy of the Mean Sea Level Continuous Record with Future Altim...

By: M. Ablain; L. Zawadzki

Description: Collecte Localisation Satellite (CLS), Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. The current mean sea level (MSL) continuous record, essential for the understanding of climate evolution, is computed with the altimetric measurements of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission, succeeded by Jason-1 and later Jason-2. The accurate continuity of the record is ensured by the conservation of the historical TOPEX orbit, but also by calibration phases between the success...

Ablain, M.: Validation Report: WP2500 Regional SSH Bias Corrections between Altimetry Missions, available at: http://www.esa-sealevel-cci.org/webfm_send/182 (last access: 20 May 2015), 2013.; Ablain, M., Cazenave, A., Valladeau, G., and Guinehut, S.: A new assessment of the error budget of global mean sea level rate estimated by satellite altimetry over 1993–2008, Ocean Sci., 5, 193–201, doi:

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Problems with Estimation and Interpretation of Oceanic Heat Transp...

By: A. Beszczynska-möller; U. Schauer

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. While the concept of oceanic heat transport – or rather heat transport divergence – is well known, it is sometimes applied inaccurately. Often so-called heat transports are computed across a partial section which means that the volume flow through such a section is not zero. In this case the heat transports depend entirely on the choice of the temperature scale. The consequenc...

Cuny, J., Rhines Peter B. , and Kwok, R.: Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 52(3), 519–542, 2005.; Fahrbach, E., Meincke, J., Østerhus, S., Rohardt, G., Schauer, U., Tverberg, V., and Verduin, J.: Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait, Polar Res., 20(2), 217–224, 2001.; Hall, M. M. and Bryden, H. L.: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 29, 339–359, 1982.; Ingvaldsen, R. B...

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An Empirical Stochastic Model of Sea-surface Temperature and Surfa...

By: I. Kamenkovich; D. Kondrashov; M. Ghil; S. Kravtsov

Description: University of Winsconsin-Milwaukee, USA. This study employs NASA's recent satellite measurements of sea-surface temperature (SST) and sea-level wind (SLW) with missing data filled-in by Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), to construct empirical models that capture both intrinsic and SST-dependent aspects of SLW variability. The model construction methodology uses a number of algorithmic innovations that are essential in providing stable estimates of model...

Abdi, H.: Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression, in: Encyclopedia of Social Sciences Research Methods, edited by: Lewis-Beck, M., Bryman, A., Futing, T., Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2003.; Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, New York, 307 pp., 1988.; Bretherton, C. S. and Battisti, D. S.: An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution, Ge...

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A Geographical and Seasonal Comparison of Nitrogen Uptake by Phyto...

By: H. Waldron; D. Clark; R. Philibert

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Primary production in the Southern Ocean has been shown to be regulated by light and nutrients (such as silicate and iron) availability. However, the impact of these factors vary seasonally and differ from region to region. The seasonal cycle of primary production in this region is not fully resolved over an annual scale due to the lack of winter in situ measurements. In ...

Bianchi, M., Feliatra, F., Tréguer, P., Vincendeau, M.-A., and Morvan, J.: Nitrification rates, ammonium and nitrate distribution in upper layers of the water column and in sediments of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 44, 1017–1032, 1997.; Bissett, W., Walsh, J., Dieterle, D., and Carder, K.: Carbon cycling in the upper waters of the Sargasso Sea: I. Numerical simulation of differential carbon and nitrogen fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 46, 2...

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A Nested Atlantic-mediterranean Sea General Circulation Model for ...

By: M. Adani; N. Pinardi; D. Pettenuzzo; C. Fratianni; P. Oddo; M. Tonani

Description: Gruppo Nazionale di Oceanografia Operativa, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Via Aldo Moro 44, 40128 Bologna, Italy. A new numerical general circulation ocean model for the Mediterranean Sea has been implemented nested within an Atlantic general circulation model within the framework of the Marine Environment and Security for the European Area project (MERSEA, Desaubies, 2006). A 4-year twin experiment was carried out from Janu...

Béranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crépon, M.: Seasonal variability of water transports through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation. Prog. Oceanogr., 66(2–4), 341–364, 2005.; Beron-Vera, F. J., Ochoa, J., and Ripa, P.: A note on boundary conditions for salt and freshwater balances, Ocean Model., 1, 111–118, 1999.; Bozec, A., Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Béranger, K., and Crépon, M.: Mediterranean oceani...

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Surface Expression of Mediterranean Water Dipoles and Their Contri...

By: I. Ambar; D. Boutov; N. Serra

Description: Institut für Meereskunde, Universität Hamburg, Germany. The generation of dipolar eddies within the Mediterranean Water (MW) layers, at the Portuguese continental slope, was observed using subsurface RAFOS floats. The surface expression of these mid-depth dipoles is here characterized with remote sensing data, namely with sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height measurements. Two cases are presented demonstrat...

Afansyev, Y., Kostianoy, A., Zatsepin, A., and coauthors: Analysis of velocity field in the eastern Black Sea from satellite data during the Black Sea 1999 experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), 3098, doi:10.1029/2000JC000578, 2002.; Ambar, I. and Howe, M.: Observations of the Mediterranean outflow – I: Mixing in the Mediterranean outflow, Deep-Sea Res., 26, 535–554, 1979.; Armi, L. and Zenk, W.: Large lenses of highly s...

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The Role of Vertical Shear on the Horizontal Oceanic Dispersion : ...

By: R. Corrado; L. Palatella; G. Lacorata; I. Schipa; R. Santoleri; A. S. Lanotte; C. Pizzigalli

Description: CNR ISAC, GOS Team, Str. Prov. Lecce Monteroni, 73100 Lecce, Italy. The effect of vertical shear on the horizontal dispersion properties of passive tracer particles on the continental shelf of South Mediterranean is investigated by means of observative and model data. In-situ current measurements reveal that vertical velocity gradients in the upper mixed layer decorrelate quite fast (∼ 1 day), whereas basin-scale ocean circulation models tend to overest...

Bennett, A. F.: A Lagrangian analysis of turbulent diffusion, Rev. Geophys., 25, 799–822, 1987.; Bennett, A. F.: Lagrangian Fluid Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2005.; Berloff, P. and McWilliams, J.: Material transport in Oceanic gyres – Part 2: Hierarchy of stochastic models, J. Phys. Ocean., 32, 797–830, 2002.; Boffetta, G., Celani, A., Cencini, M., Lacorata, G., and Vulpiani, A.: Non-asymptotic properties of transport and mixing, Chaos, 10, 50–60...

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Usefulness of High Resolution Coastal Models for Operational Oil S...

By: J. Mattsson; S. Dick; L. R. Hole; A. Carrasco; F. Janssen; G. Broström; S. Berger

Description: Norwegian Meteorological Institute (met.no), Norway. Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS) for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for...

Ardhuin, F., Marié, L., Rascale, N., and Forget, P.: Observation and estimation of Lagrangian, Stokes and Eulerian currents induced by wind and waves at the sea surface, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2820–2838, 2009.; Blumberg, A. F. and Mellor, G. L.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-Dimensional Coastal Ocean Models, edited by: Heaps, N. S., AGU Coastal and Estuarine Series, American Geophysical Union, Washington D.C., 1987.; Bro...

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Variability in the Air–sea Interaction Patterns and Timescales Wit...

By: M. González; J. Sáenz; G. Esnaola; A. Fontán

Description: AZTI-Tecnalia, Marine Research Division. Herrera Kaia, Portualdea z/g, 20110 Pasaia, Spain. Two high-frequency (HF) radar stations were installed on the coast of the south-eastern Bay of Biscay in 2009, providing high spatial and temporal resolution and large spatial coverage of currents in the area for the first time. This has made it possible to quantitatively assess the air–sea interaction patterns and timescales for the period 2009–2010. The analysi...

Zelenke, B. C.: An empirical statistical model relating winds and ocean surface currents: Implications for short-term current forecasts, M.S. thesis, Dept. of Oceanography, Oregon State University, Oregon, 94 pp., available at: http://hdl.handle.net/1957/2166, last access: 16 August 2012, 2005.; Zhao, J., Chen, X., Hu, W., Chen, J., and Guo, M.: Dynamics of surface currents over Qingdao coastal waters in August 2008, J. Geophys...

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The Gyre-scale Circulation of the North Atlantic and Sea Level at ...

By: G. Wöppelmann; N. Pouvreau; P. L. Woodworth

Description: Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool L3 5DA, UK. The relationship between the gyre-scale circulation of the North Atlantic, represented by air pressure near to the centre of the sub-tropical gyre, and sea level measured at the eastern boundary of the ocean has been investigated using records commencing in the middle of the 18th century. These time series are twice as long as those employed in a...

Allan, R. and Ansell, T.: A new globally complete monthly historical mean sea level pressure data set (HadSLP2): 1850–2004, J. Clim., 19(22), 5816–5842, 2006.; Bindoff, N., Willebrand, J., Artale, V., Cazenave, A., Gregory, J., Gulev, S., Hanawa, K., Le Quéré, C., Levitus, S., Nojiri, Y., Shum, C. K., Talley, L., and Unnikrishnan, A.: Observations: oceanic climate change and sea level, in: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group 1 t...

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Energetics of the Layer-thickness Form Drag Based on an Integral I...

By: T. Yamagata; H. Aiki

Description: Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama-city 236-0001, Japan. The vertical redistribution of the geostrophic momentum by the residual effects of pressure perturbations (called the layer-thickness form drag) is investigated using thickness-weighted temporal-averaged mean primitive equations for a continuously stratified fluid in an adiabatic formulation. A four-box energy diagram, in whic...

Aiki, H., Jacobson, T., and Yamagata, T.: Parameterizing ocean eddy transports from surface to bottom, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L19 302, doi:10.1029/2004GL020703, 2004.; Andrews, R. G.: A finite-amplitude Eliassen-Palm theorem in isentropic coordinates, J. Atmos. Sci., 40, 1877–1883, 1983.; Andrews, R. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: An exact theory of nonlinear waves on a Lagrangian-mean flow, J. Fluid Mech., 89, 609–646, 1978.; Andrews, R. G. and McIntyre, M. E.: Planetary wav...

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Development of an Automatic Multiple Launcher for Expendable Probe...

By: G. M. R. Manzella; F. Reseghetti; G. Zappalà

Description: CNR-IAMC, Section of Messina, Messina, Italy. A main goal of a Ship Of Opportunity Programme (SOOP) is the provision of temperature profiles in near real time. The use of commercial ships and expandable probes allows the reduction of costs, in comparison with research ship cruises. A major cost effectiveness is achieved using an automated multiple launcher, requiring minimum personnel effort. A multiple launcher, developed in the framework of the Medite...

Manzella, G. M. R., Reseghetti, F., Coppini, G., et al.: The improvements of the Ships Of Opportunity Program in MFSTEP, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 3, 1717–1746, 2006.; AODC: Guide to MK12 – XBT System (Including Launching, returns and faults), Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC), METOC Services, 1–63, 1999.; AODC: Expendable Bathythermographs (XBT) delayed mode, Quality control manual, Australian Oceanographic Data Centre (AODC), Data Management Group, Technical Manua...

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High Resolution 3-d Temperature and Salinity Fields Derived from i...

By: A.-l. Dhomps; P.-y. Le Traon; G. Larnicol; S. Guinehut

Description: CLS-Space Oceanography Division, Ramonville Saint-Agne, France. This paper describes an observation-based approach that efficiently combines the main components of the global ocean observing system using statistical methods. Accurate but sparse in situ temperature and salinity profiles (mainly from Argo for the last 10 yr) are merged with the lower accuracy but high-resolution synthetic data derived from satellite altimeter and sea surface temperature o...

AVISO: SSALTO/DUACS User Handbook: (M)SLA and (M)ADT near-real time and delayed time products, SALP-MU-P-EA-21065-CLS Edn. 2.9, 73 pp., 2012.; Buongiorno Nardelli, B., Guinehut, S., Pascual, A., Drillet, Y., Ruiz, S., and Mulet, S.: Towards high resolution mapping of 3-D mesoscale dynamics from observations: preliminary comparison of retrieval techniques and models within MESCLA project, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 9, 1045–1083,

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The Effect of Tides on Dense Water Formation in Arctic Shelf Seas ...

By: V. Le Fouest; A. J. Willmott; G. R. Tattersall; M. A. Morales Maqueda; C. F. Postlethwaite; J. Holt

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. Ocean tides are not explicitly included in many ocean general circulation models, which will therefore omit any interactions between tides and the cryosphere. We present model simulations of the wind and buoyancy driven circulation and tides of the Barents and Kara Seas, using a 25 km × 25 km 3-D ocean circulation model coupled to a dynamic and thermodynamic...

Andreu-Burillo, I., Holt, J., Proctor, R., Annan, J. D., James, I. D., and Prandle, D.: Assimilation of sea surface temperature in the POL Coastal Ocean Modelling System, J. Marine Syst., 65, 27–40, 2007.; Barron, C. N., Kara, A. B., Martin, P. J., Rhodes, R. C., and Smedstad, L. F.: Formulation, implementation and examination of vertical coordinate choices in the Global Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), Ocean Model., 11, 347–375, 2006.; Barron, C. N., Kara, A. B., Rhodes...

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