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Spatiotemporal Variations of FCo2 in the North Sea : Volume 6, Iss...

By: M. Hoppema; T. Johannessen; A. Olsen; A. V. Borges; H. Thomas; A. M. Omar

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. Data from two Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) (MS Trans Carrier and MV Nuka Arctica), acquired along one zonal and one meridional transect (2005–2007) augmented with data subsets from ten cruises (1987–2005) were used to investigate the spatio-temporal variations of the CO2 fugacity in seawater (fCO2sw) in the North ...

Beaugrand, G.: The North Sea regime shift: Evidence, causes, mechanism and consequences, Progr. Oceanogr., 60, 245–262, 2004.; Bell, M. J., Barciela, R., Hines, A., Martin, M., Sellar, A., and Storkey, D.: The Forecasting Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) system, in: Ocean Weather Forecasting, edited by: Chassignet, E. P. and Verron, J., 397–411, Springer, The Netherlands, 2006.; Borges, A. V.: Do we have enough pieces of the jigsaw to integrate CO2 fluxes in the Coastal O...

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Frequency-dependent Effects of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning...

By: S. Y. Philip; H. A. Dijkstra; G. J. Van Oldenborgh; L. A. Te Raa

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric research Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. Using the ECHAM5/MPI-OM model, we study the relation between the variations in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and both the Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) amplitude. In a 17-member 20C3M/SRES-A1b ensemble for 1950–2100 the Pacific response to AMOC variations on different time scales and amp...

Chang, P., Zhang, R., Hazeleger, W., Wen, C., Wan, X., Ji, L., Haarsma, R., Breugem, W., and Seidel, H.: An Oceanic Bridge Between Abrupt Changes in North Atlantic Climate and the African Monsoon, Nature Geoscience, 1, 444–448, 2008.; Delworth, T. L. and Mann, M. E.: Observed and simulated multidecadal variability in the Northern Hemisphere, Clim. Dynam., 16, 661–676, 2000.; Dijkstra, H. A., Te Raa, L. A., Schmeits, M., and Gerrits, J.: On the physics of the {A}tlantic {...

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High Frequency Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning ...

By: D. R. Cameron; R. Tailleux; J. M. Gregory; B. Balan Sarojini; B. Sinha; G. R. Bigg; N. R. Edwards; L. C. Shaffrey; A. T. Blaker; A. P. Megann

Description: National Centre for Atmospheric Science – Climate Division, Reading, UK. We compare the variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) as simulated by the coupled climate models of the RAPID project, which cover a wide range of resolution and complexity, and observed by the RAPID/MOCHA array at about 26° N. We analyse variability on a range of timescales, from five-daily to interannual. In models of all resolutions there is substa...

Anderson, D. L. T. and Corry, R. A.: Ocean response to low frequency wind forcing with application to the seasonal variation in the Florida Straits-Gulf Stream transport, Prog. Oceanogr., 14, 7–40, 1985.; Anderson, D. L. T. and Killworth, P. D.: Spin-up of a stratified ocean with topography, Deep-Sea Res., 24, 709–732, 1977.; Atkinson, C. P., Bryden, H. L., Hirschi, J. J.-M., and Kanzow, T.: On the seasonal cycles and variability of Florida Straits, Ekman and Sverdrup tr...

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Upper Layer Current Variability in the Central Ligurian Sea : Volu...

By: S. Sparnocchia; R. Bozzano; A. Cappelletti; M. E. Schiano; S. Pensieri; P. Picco

Description: ENEA CRAM, Forte S. Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici (SP), Italy. Long-time series of surface currents and meteorological parameters were analysed to estimate the variability of the upper layer circulation as a preliminary study of the Ligurian Air-Sea Interaction Experiment (LASIE07). Current meter data were collected by an upward-looking RDI Sentinel 300 kHz ADCP deployed in the Central Ligurian Sea (43°47.77' N; 9°02.85' E) near the meteo-oceanograph...

Astraldi, M. and Manzella, G. M. R.: Some observations on current measurements on the Eastern Ligurian Shelf, Mediterranean Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 2, 183–193, 1983.; Astraldi, M. and Gasparini, G. P.: The seasonal characteristics of the circulation in the North Mediterranean basin and their relationship with the atmospheric-climatic conditions, J. Geophys. Res., 97(C6), 9531–9540, 1992.; Borzelli, G. and Ligi, R.: Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of SST Image Serie...

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Influence of Frontal Cyclones Evolution on the 2009 (Ekman) and 20...

By: V. H. Kourafalou; M. Le Hénaff; Y. S. Androulidakis

Description: University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science RSMAS/MPO 4600 Rickenbacker Cswy., Miami, FL 33149, USA. The anticyclonic Loop Current Eddy (LCE) shedding events are strongly associated with the evolution of Loop Current Frontal Eddies (LCFEs) over the eastern Gulf of Mexico (GoM). A numerical simulation, in tandem with in situ measurements and satellite data, was used to investigate the Loop Current (LC) evolution and the surro...

Androulidakis, Y. S. and Kourafalou, V. H.: On the processes that influence the transport and fate of Mississippi waters under flooding outflow conditions, Ocean Dynam., 63, 143–164, 2013.; Athié, G., Candela, J., Ochoa, J., and Sheinbaum, J.: Impact of Caribbean cyclones on the detachment of Loop Current anticyclones, J. Geophys. Res., 117, C03018, doi:10.1029/2011JC007090, 2012.; Biggs, D., Fargion, G., Hamilton, P., a...

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What Are Ecogenomic Sensors? – a Review and Thoughts for the Futur...

By: C. A. Scholin

Description: Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institue 7700 Sandholdt Road Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA. The OceanSensors08 workshop held 31 March–4 April 2008 in Warnemünde, Germany, brought together an international group of marine scientists, sensor developers and technologists with a common interest in shaping the future of ocean sensing. In preparation for that meeting a series of review papers were commissioned, one of which was meant to cover Sensors for Ocean...

Agilent: http://www.chem.agilent.com/Scripts/PCol.asp?lPage=494, last access January, 2009.; Ahn, S., Kulis, D. M., Erdner, D. L., Anderson, D. M., and Walt, D. R: Fiber-Optic Microarray for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Harmful Algal Bloom Species, Appl. Env. Microbiol., 72, 5742–5749, 2006.; Bavykin, S. G., Akowski, J. P., Zakhariev, V. M., Barsky, V. E., Perov, A. N., and Mirzabekov, A. D.: Portable system for microbial sample preparation and oligonucleotide micr...

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Coastal Observing and Forecasting System for the German Bight – Es...

By: J. Staneva; S. Grayek; J. Schulz-stellenfleth; W. Petersen; E. V. Stanev; J. Seemann

Description: Institute of Coastal Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 21502 Geesthacht, Germany. A coastal observing system for Northern and Arctic Seas (COSYNA) aims at construction of a long-term observatory for the German part of the North Sea, elements of which will be deployed as prototype modules in Arctic coastal waters. At present a coastal prediction system deployed in the area of the German Bight integrates near r...

Backhaus, J. O. and Maier-Reimer, E.: On seasonal circulation in the North Sea, in: North Sea Dynamics, edited by: Sündermann, J. and Lenz, W., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, 693 pp., 1983.; Barrick, D. E., Evans, M. W., and Weber, B. L.: Ocean surface currents mapped by radar, Science, 198(4313), 138–144, 1977.; Barth, A., Alvera-Azcárate, A., and Weisberg, R.: Assimilation of high-frequency radar currents in a nested model of the West Florida Shelf, J. ...

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Impact of the Indonesian Throughflow on Agulhas Leakage : Volume 9...

By: H. A. Dijkstra; W. P. M. De Ruijter; D. Le Bars

Description: IMAU, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. Using ocean models of different complexity we show that opening the Indonesian Passage between the Pacific and the Indian oceans increases the input of Indian Ocean water into the South Atlantic via the Agulhas leakage. In a strongly eddying global ocean model this response results from an increased Agulhas Current transport and a constant proportion of Agulhas retroflection so...

Backeberg, B. C., Bertino, L., and Johannessen, J. A.: Evaluating two numerical advection schemes in HYCOM for eddy-resolving modelling of the Agulhas Current, Ocean Sci., 5, 173–190, doi:10.5194/os-5-173-2009, 2009.; Beal, L. M., De Ruijter, W. P. M., Biastoch, A., and Zahn, R.: On the role of the Agulhas system in ocean circulation and climate, Nature, 472, 429–436, 2011.; Bryden, H. L., Beal, L. M., and Duncan, L. M....

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The Land-ice Contribution to 21St-century Dynamic Sea Level Rise :...

By: J. A. Lowe; A. J. Payne; T. Howard; J. L. Bamber; J. Oerlemans; T. L. Edwards; J. Ridley; R. H. Giesen; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; A. K. Pardaens

Description: Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. Climate change has the potential to influence global mean sea level through a number of processes including (but not limited to) thermal expansion of the oceans and enhanced land ice melt. In addition to their contribution to global mean sea level change, these two processes (among others) lead to local departures from the global mean sea level change, through a number of mechanisms including ...

Aiken, C. M. and England, M. H.: Sensitivity of the present-day climate to freshwater forcing associated with Antarctic sea ice loss, J. Climate, 21, 3936–3946, doi:10.1175/2007jcli1901.1, 2008.; Baldwin, M. P., Stephenson, D. B., and Jolliffe, I. T.: Spatial Weighting and Iterative Projection Methods for EOFs, J. Climate, 22, 2340–243, doi:10.1175/2008jcli2147.1, 20...

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Assimilating Globcolour Ocean Colour Data Into a Pre-operational P...

By: R. M. Barciela; D. Lea; K. P. Edwards; M. J. Martin; D. A. Ford; J. Demaria

Description: Met Office, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. As part of the GlobColour project, daily chlorophyll a observations, derived using remotely sensed ocean colour data from the MERIS, MODIS and SeaWiFS sensors, are produced. The ability of these products to be assimilated into a pre-operational global coupled physical-biogeochemical model has been tested, on both a hindcast and near-real-time basis, and the impact on the system assessed. The assimila...

Allen, J. I., Eknes, M., and Evensen, G.: An Ensemble Kalman Filter with a complex marine ecosystem model: hindcasting phytoplankton in the Cretan Sea, Ann. Geophys., 21, 399–411, doi:10.5194/angeo-21-399-2003, 2003.; Anderson, L. A., Robinson, A. R., and Lozano, C. J.: Physical and biological modeling in the Gulf Stream region – Part 1: Data assimilation methodology, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 47, 1787–1827, 2000.; Ander...

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Long-term Monitoring Programme of the Hydrological Variability in ...

By: M. Bensi; G. Budillon; H. Kontoyiannis; C. Sammari; V. Cardin; P. Puig; L. Bengara; S. Sparnocchia; J. Salat; J. García-lafuente; I. Taupier-letage; J. L. Fuda; A. Sanchez-roman; B. El Moumni; C. Millot; M. Vargas-yáñez; G. P. Gasparini; C. Tamburini; M. Borghini; J. C. Sánchez Garrido; S. Ben Ismail; P. Raimbault; A. Drago; A. Theocharis; J. Font; A. Vetrano; C. Curtil; L. Coppola; G. Rougier; D. Lefevre; K. Schroeder

Description: CNR-ISMAR, Forte Santa Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici, La Spezia, Italy. The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity), collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important time scales) in key-places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins), constitute a priority in the co...

ANTARES Collaboration: First results of the Instrumentation Line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope, Astropart. Phys., 26, 314–324, 2006.; Ambar, I., Serra, N., Brogueira, M. J., Cabeçadas, G., Abrantes, F., Freitas, P., Gonçalves, C., and Gonzalez, N.: Physical, Chemical and Sedimentological Aspects of the Mediterranean Outflow Off Iberia, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 4163–4177, 2002.; Artegiani, A., Paschini, E., Russo, A., Bregant, D., Raicich, F., and Pinardi, ...

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A Simple and Self-consistent Geostrophic-force-balance Model of th...

By: J. Marotzke; J. Callies

Description: Ozean im Erdsystem, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. A simple model of the thermohaline circulation (THC) is formulated, with the objective to represent explicitly the geostrophic force balance of the basinwide THC. The model comprises advective-diffusive density balances in two meridional-vertical planes located at the eastern and the western walls of a hemispheric sector basin. Boundary mixi...

Defant, A.: Physical Oceanography, Vol. I, MacMillan, New York, 1961.; Adcroft, A., Scott, J. R., and Marotzke, J.: Impact of geothermal heating on the global ocean circulation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 1735–1738, doi:10.1029/2000GL012182, 2001.; Armi, L.: Some evidence for boundary mixing in the deep ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 83, 1971–1979, doi:10.1029/JC083iC04p01971...

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Absolute Salinity, Density Salinity and the Reference-composition ...

By: T. J. McDougall; R. Pawlowicz; D. G. Wright; G. M. Marion; R. Feistel

Description: Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2, Canada. Salinity plays a key role in the determination of the thermodynamic properties of seawater and the new TEOS-101 standard provides a consistent and effective approach to dealing with relationships between salinity and these thermodynamic properties. However, there are a number of practical issues that arise in the application of TEOS-10, both in terms of accuracy...

Bacon, S., Culkin, F., Higgs, N., and Ridout, P.: IAPSO Standard Seawater: definition of the uncertainty in the calibration procedure, and stability of recent batches, J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 24, 1785–1799, 2007.; Brewer, P. G. and Bradshaw, A.: The effect of non-ideal composition of seawater on salinity and density, J. Mar. Res., 33, 157–175, 1975.; Chen, C.-T. A.: Shelf-vs. dissolution-generated alkalinity above the chemical lysocline, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 5365–53...

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A New 3-d Modelling Method to Extract Subtransect Dimensions from ...

By: L. Fillinger; T. Funke

Description: Alfred-Wegener-Institut Helmholtz-Zentrum für Polar- und Meeresforschung, Am Alten Hafen 26, 27568 Bremerhaven, Germany. Underwater video transects have become a common tool for quantitative analysis of the seafloor. However a major difficulty remains in the accurate determination of the area surveyed as underwater navigation can be unreliable and image scaling does not always compensate for distortions due to perspective and topography. Depending on the...

Althaus, F., Williams, A., Schlacher, T. A., Kloser, R. J., Green, M. A., Barker, B. A., Bax, N. J., Brodie, P., and Schlacher-Hoenlinger, M. A.: Impacts of bottom trawling on deep-coral ecosystems of seamounts are long-lasting, Mar. Ecol.-Prog. Ser., 397, 279–294, doi:10.3354/meps08248, 2009.; Amado-Filho, G. M., Pereira-Filho, G. H., Bahia, R. G., Abrantes, D. P., Veras, P. C., and Matheus, Z.: Occurrence and distribution...

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Spatiotemporal Variations of FCo2 in the North Sea : Volume 6, Iss...

By: A. Olsen; A. M. Omar; T. Johannessen; A. V. Borges; M. Hoppema; H. Thomas

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Allégaten 70, 5007 Bergen, Norway. Data from two Voluntary Observing Ship (VOS) (2005–2007) augmented with data subsets from ten cruises (1987–2005) were used to investigate the spatiotemporal variations of the CO2 fugacity in seawater (fCO2sw) in the North Sea at seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The observed seasonal fCO2sw variations...

Beaugrand, G.: The North Sea regime shift: Evidence, causes, mechanism and consequences, Prog. Oceanogr., 60, 245–262, 2004.; Bell, M. J., Barciela, R., Hines, A., Martin, M., Sellar, A., and Storkey, D.: The Forecasting Ocean Assimilation Model (FOAM) system, in: Ocean Weather Forecasting, edited by: Chassignet, E. P. and Verron, J., Springer, The Netherlands, 397–411, 2006.; Borges, A. V. and Frankignoulle, M.: Daily and seasonal variations of the partial pressure of C...

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Towards Measuring the Meridional Overturning Circulation from Spac...

By: A. G. P. Shaw; R. Houseago-stokes; P. Challenor; R. Tokmakian; D. Cromwell

Description: Ocean Observations and Climate, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (NOCS), UK. We present a step towards measuring the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), i.e. the full-depth water mass transport, in the North Atlantic using satellite data. Using the Parallel Ocean Climate Model, we simulate satellite observations of ocean bottom pressure and sea surface height (SSH) over the 20-year period from 1979–1998, and use a linear model to estimate ...

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Validation of the Nemo-ersem Operational Ecosystem Model for the N...

By: R. Barciela; M. Butenschön; K. P. Edwards

Description: Met Office, Exeter, UK. This paper details updates to the Met Office's operational coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem model from the 7 km Medium-Resolution Continental Shelf – POLCOMS-ERSEM (MRCS-PE) system (Siddorn et al., 2007) to the 7 km Atlantic Margin Model NEMO-ERSEM (AMM7-NE) system. We also provide a validation of the ecosystem component of the new operational system. Comparisons have been made between the model variables and available in situ, sa...

Allen, J. I., Holt, J. T., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Mar. Syst., 68, 381–404, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2007.01.005, 2007.; Barciela, R., Mahdon, R., Edwards, K., Miller, P., Shutler, J., Jonas, P., Murdoch, N., Whither, A., and Roast, S.: Operational monitoring and forecas...

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Mediterranean Intermediate Circulation Estimated from Argo Data in...

By: P. M. Poulain; M. Menna

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale – OGS, Sgonico (TS), Italy. Data from 38 Argo profiling floats are used to describe the intermediate Mediterranean currents for the period October 2003–January 2010. These floats were programmed to execute 5-day cycles, to drift at a neutral parking depth of 350 m and measure temperature and salinity profiles from either 700 or 2000 m up to the surface. At the end of each cycle the floats re...

Davis, R., Webb, L., Regier, L., and Dufour, J.: The Autonomous Lagrangian Circulation Explorer (ALACE), J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., 9, 264–285, 1992.; Artale, V., Astraldi, M., Buffoni, G., and Gasparini, G. P.: Seasonal variability of gyre-scale circulation in the northern Tyrrhenian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 99(C7), 14127–14137, 1994.; Astraldi, M. and Gasparini, G. P.: \blackbox\bf title?, Coast. Estuar. Stud., 46, 115–134, 1994.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Gervasio, L...

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Sea Surface Temperature Anomalies, Seasonal Cycle and Trend Regime...

By: S. E. Lluch-cota; D. B. Lluch-cota; A. Trasviña-castro; A. Ramos-rodríguez

Description: Programa de Ecología Pesquera, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C. La Paz, Mexico. We used the extended reconstruction of sea surface temperature (ERSST) to analyze the variation of surface temperature and the seasonal cycle along the coast of the eastern Pacific (60° N–60° S, 61 pixels alongshore) from 1950 to 2010 (732 months). First we analyzed the monthly anomalies and looked for a relationship of such anomalies with total solar ...

Ashok, K. and Yamagata, T.: The El Niño with a difference, Nature, 461, 481–484, 2009.; Bloomfield, P.: Fourier Analysis of Time Series: An Introduction, Wiley Series in Probability and Mathematical Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, 1st edn., 1976.; Dean, W. E.: Sun and climate, USGS Fact Sheet FS-095-00, 2000.; Braun, H., Christl, M., Rahmstorf, S., Ganopolski, A., Mangini, A., Kubatzki, C., Roth, K., and Kromer, B.: Possible solar origin of the 1,470-year glacial climate ...

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Variability of Heat and Salinity Content in the North Atlantic in ...

By: N. C. Wells; D. L. Aleynik; A. G. P. Shaw; V. O. Ivchenko

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton, UK. The analysis of the heat and salinity contents have been made for the Northern Atlantic for the decade between January 1999 and December 2008. This analysis is based on the Argo profiling data for the upper 2000 m. Basin-averaged values of anomaly of heat (AHC) and anomaly of salinity content (ASC) are robust and stable. The AHC and ASC demonstrate positive trends in the last decade in the upper 2000 m of ...

Gandin, L. S.: Objective analysis of meteorological fields, Israel Program for Scientific Translations, 242 pp., 1965.; Bretherton, F. P., Davis, R. E., and Fandry, C. B.: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73, Deep-Sea Res., 23, 559–582, 1976.; Coatanoan, C.: Loic Petit De La Villeon. In-situ data quality control, Coriolis Data Centre, COR-DO/DTI-RAP/04-047, 17 pp., online available at:

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