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Decadal Variability of Heat Content in the South China Sea Inferre...

By: Qinyan Liu; Jian Lan; Lili Zeng; Dongxiao Wang; Wei Song; Dandan Sui

Description: Physical Oceanography Laboratory, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China. Using an observation data set of temperature and the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), the decadal variability of upper ocean heat content (0–400 m; hereafter, OHC) in the South China Sea (SCS) was investigated for the period from 1958 to 2007. Decadal variability was identified as the dominant mode of upper OHC besides the seasonal cycle. According to decreasing or increa...

Carton, J. A. and Giese B. S.: A Reanalysis of Ocean Climate Using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA), Mon. Weather Rev., 136, 2999–3017, 2008.; Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G., Cao, X., and Giese, B.: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950–95, Part I: Methodology, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 30, 294–309, 2000a.; Carton, J. A., Chepurin, G., Cao, X., and Giese, B.: A simple ocean data assimilation analysis of the global upper ocean 1950-95. Part ...

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Oil Spills Prediction in the Bonifacio Strait Area, Western Medite...

By: A. Olita; M. Sinerchia; A. Satta; A. Ribotti; L. Fazioli; A. Perilli; B. Sorgente; R. Sorgente; M. Borghini; A. Cucco; K. Schroeder

Description: CNR IAMC U.O.S. Oristano, Oristano, Italy. An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled w...

Bellafiore, D., Umgiesser, G., and Cucco, A.: Modeling the water exchange between the Venice Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea, Ocean Dyn., 58, 397–413, 2008.; Bajo, M., Zampato, L., Umgiesser, G., Cucco, A., Canestrelli, P.. A finite element operational model for the storm surge prediction in Venice. Estuarine, Coast. Shelf Sci., 75, 236-2-49, 2007.; Blumberg, A.-F. and Mellor, G.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-dimensional Coa...

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On the Indonesian Throughflow in the Occam 1/4 Degree Ocean Model ...

By: D. J. Webb; U. W. Humphries

Description: King Monghut's Institute of Technology, Thailand. The Indonesian Throughflow is analysed in two runs of the OCCAM 1/4 degree global ocean model, one using monthly climatological winds and one using ECMWF analysed six-hourly winds for the period 1993 to 1998. The long-term model throughflow agrees with observations and the value predicted by Godfrey's Island Rule. The Island Rule has some skill in predicting the annual signal each year but is poor at pre...

Molcard, R., Ilahude, A. G., Fieux, M., Swallow, J. C., and Banjarnahor, J.: Low frequency variability of the currents in Indonesian Channels (Savu-Roti M1 and Roti-Ashmore Reef M2), Deep Sea Res., 41, 1643–1662, 1994.; Murray, S. P. and Arief, D.: Throughflow into the Indian Ocean through the Lombok Strait, January 1985–January 1986. Nature 333, 444–447, 1988.; Murray, S. P., Arief, D., Kindle, J. C., and Hurlburt, H. E.: Characteristics of circulation in an Indonesian ...

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Arctic Ocean Circulation and Variability – Advection and External ...

By: B. Rudels

Description: Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland. The first hydrographic data from the Arctic Ocean, the section from the Laptev Sea to the passage between Greenland and Svalbard obtained by Nansen on his drift with Fram 1893–1896, aptly illustrate the main features of Arctic Ocean oceanography and indicate possible processes active in transforming the water masses in the Arctic Ocean. Many, perhaps most, processes were identified already...

Shimada, K., McLaughlin, F. A., Carmack, E. C., Proshutinsky, A., Nishino, S., and Itoh, M.: Penetration of the 1990s warm temperature anomaly of the Atlantic Water in the Canada basin, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L20301, doi:10.1029/2004GL020860, 2004.; Shimada, K., Itoh, M., Nishino, S., McLaughlin, F. A., Carmack, E., and Proshutinsky, A.: Halocline structure in the Canada Basin of theARctic Ocean, Geophys. Res. Lett., 3...

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On the Assimilation of Ice Velocity and Concentration Data Into La...

By: T. Fichefet; V. Dulière

Description: Université Catholique de Louvain, Institut d'Astronomie et de Géophysique Georges LemaÎtre, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Data assimilation into sea ice models designed for climate studies has started about 15 years ago. In most of the studies conducted so far, it is assumed that the improvement brought by the assimilation is straightforward. However, some studies suggest this might not be true. In order to elucidate this question and to find an appropriate...

Cavalieri, D., Parkinson, C., and Vinnikov, K.: 30-Year satellite record reveals contrasting Arctic and Antarctic decadal sea ice variability, Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 18, doi:10.1029/2003GL018031, 2003.; Comiso, J.: A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1956, doi:10.1029/2002GL015650, 2002.; Comiso, J. and Steffen, J.: Studies of Antarctic sea ice concentrations from satellite data and their applications, J. Geophys. Res., 1...

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Halocline Water Modification and Along Slope Advection at the Lapt...

By: I. Polyakov; S. Torres-valdes; A. Novikhin; D. Bauch; A. Mix; J. McKay; I. Dmitrenko

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Wischhofstr. 1–3, 24148 Kiel, Germany. A general pattern in water mass distribution and potential shelf-basin exchanges is revealed at the Laptev Sea continental slope based on hydrochemical and stable oxygen isotope data from summers 2005–2009. Despite considerable interannual variations, a frontal system can be inferred between shelf, continental slope and central Eurasian Basin waters in the upper 100 ...

Anderson, L. G., Andersson, P. S., Björk, G., Peter Jones, E., Jutterström, S., and Wåhlström, I.: Source and formation of the upper halocline of the Arctic Ocean, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 118, 410–421, doi:10.1029/2012JC008291, 2013.; Bareiss, J. and Görgen, K.: Spatial and temporal variability of sea ice in the Laptev Sea: Analyses and review of satellite passive-microwave data and model results, 1979 to 2002, Global P...

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The Effect of Tides on Dense Water Formation in Arctic Shelf Seas ...

By: M. A. Morales Maqueda; A. J. Willmott; V. Le Fouest; G. R. Tattersall; C. F. Postlethwaite; J. Holt

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. Ocean tides are not explicitly included in many ocean general circulation models, which will therefore omit any interactions between tides and the cryosphere. We present model simulations of the wind and buoyancy driven circulation and tides of the Barents and Kara Seas, using a 25 km × 25 km 3-D ocean circulation model coupled to a dynamic and thermodynamic...

Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean Model., 32, 175–187, 2010.; Andreu-Burillo, I., Holt, J., Proctor, R., Annan, J. D., James, I. D., and Prandle, D.: Assimilation of sea surface temperature in the POL Coastal Ocean Modelling System, J. Marine Syst., 65, 27–40, 2007.; Barron, C. N., Kara, A. B., Martin, P. J., Rhodes, R. C., and Smedstad, L. F.: Formulation,...

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The Sicily Channel Regional Model Forecasting System: Initial Boun...

By: S. Gaberšek; A. Olita; S. Natale; R. Sorgente; M. Astraldi; A. Ribotti; M. Borghini

Description: IMC – International Marine Centre Loc. Sa Mardini, 09170 Oristano, Italy. The Sicily Channel Regional Model forecasting system was tested using an optimization package for the initial and lateral boundary conditions. Spurious high frequency oscillations during the spin-up time were successfully reduced both in duration and magnitude by optimizing the time tendency of the free surface elevation using the Variational Initialization and Forcing Platform me...

Astraldi, M., Conversano, F., Civitarese, G., Gasparini, G., Ribera~d'Alcala, M., and Vetrano, A.: Water mass properties and chemical signatures in the central Mediterranean region, J. Mar. Syst., 155–177, 2002.; Auclair, F., Casitas, S., and Marsaleix, P.: Application of an Inverse Method to Coastal Modeling, J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol., 17, 1368–1391, 2000.; Auclair, F., Marsaleix, P., and Estournel, C.: The penetration of the Northern Current over the Gulf of Lions (Med...

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El Niño in a Changing Climate: a Multi-model Study : Volume 1, Iss...

By: S. Y. Philip; M Collins; G. J. Van Oldenborgh

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute, P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands. In many parts of the world, climate projections for the next century depend on potential changes in the properties of the El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The current staus of these projections is assessed by examining a large set of climate model experiments prepared for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Firstly,...

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Transformation of Organic Carbon, Trace Element, and Organo-minera...

By: V. V. Gordeev; J. Viers; A. V. Chupakov; L. S. Shirokova; C. Zouiten; V. P. Shevchenko; T. Y. Vorobieva; A. Lanzanova; O. S. Pokrovsky; C. Casseraund; F. Candaudap

Description: Georesources and Environment Toulouse GET UMR 5563 CNRS, Université Paul Sabatier, 14 Avenue Edouard Belin 31400 Toulouse, France. The estuarine behavior of organic carbon (OC) and trace elements (TE) was studied for the largest European sub-Arctic river, which is the Severnaya Dvina; this river is a deltaic estuary covered in ice during several hydrological seasons: summer (July 2010, 2012) and winter (March 2009) baseflow, and the November–December...

Alfaro-De la Torre, M. C., Beaulieu, P. Y., and Tessier, A. T.: In situ measurement of trace metals in lakewater using the dialysis and DGT techniques, Anal. Chim. Acta, 418, 53–68, 2000.; Allard, T., Menguy, N., Salomon, J., Calligaro, T., Weber, T., Calas, G., and Benedetti, M. F.: Revealing forms of iron in river-borne material from major tropical rivers of the Amazon Basin (Brazil), Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 68, 3079–3094, 2004.; Amon, R. M. W. and Benner, R.: Photoch...

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Sources of 21St Century Regional Sea Level Rise Along the Coast of...

By: J. A. Lowe; J. Ridley; T. Howard; A. K. Pardaens; R. T. W. L. Hurkmans; J. L. Bamber; G. Spada; D. Vaughan

Description: Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, EX1 3PB, UK. Changes in both global and regional mean sea level, and changes in the magnitude of extreme flood heights, are the result of a combination of several distinct contributions most, but not all, of which are associated with climate change. These contributions include effects in the solid earth, gravity field, changes in ocean mass due to ice-loss from ice sheets and glaciers, thermal expan...

Araujo, I. B. and Pugh, D. T.: Sea levels at Newlyn 1915–2005: analysis of trends for future flooding risks, J. Coastal Res., 24, 203–212, doi:10.2112/06-0785.1, 2008.; Coles, S.: An introduction to statistical modeling of extreme values, Springer, 208 pp., 2001.; Brown, S., Boorman, P., McDonald, R., and Murphy, J.: Use and interpretation of surface wind projections from the 11-member Met Office Regional Climate Model ense...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Ther...

By: A. Feistel; D. R. Jackett; W. Wagner; U. Overhoff; G. M. Marion; J. H. Reissmann; R. Feistel; D. G. Wright; C. Guder; K. Miyagawa

Description: Leibniz-Institut für Ostseeforschung, Seestraße 15, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127) on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code ...

Safarov, J., Millero, F., Feistel, R., Heintz, A., and Hassel, E.: Thermodynamic properties of standard seawater: extensions to high temperatures and pressures, Ocean Sci., 5, 235–246, 2009.; Shaw, A. N.: The Derivation of Thermodynamical Relations for a Simple System, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, A 234, 299–328, 1935.; Sherwood, T. K., Brian, P. L. T., and Fisher, R. E.: Desalination by reverse osmosis, Ind. Eng. Chem. Fundamen., 6, 2–12, 1967.; Skripov, V. P. and Fai...

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Tidal Modulation of Two-layer Hydraulic Exchange Flows : Volume 3,...

By: A. McC. Hogg; L. M. Frankcombe

Description: Research School of Earth Sciences, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. Time-dependent, two layer hydraulic exchange flow is studied using an idealised shallow water model. It is found that barotropic time-dependent perturbations, representing tidal forcing, increase the baroclinic exchange flux above the steady hydraulic limit, with flux increasing monotonically with tidal amplitude (measured either by height or flux amplitude over a...

Armi, L.: The hydraulics of two flowing layers with different densities, J. Fluid Mech., 163, 27–58, 1986.; Armi, L. and Farmer, D M.: Maximal two-layer exchange through a contraction with barotropic net flow, J. Fluid Mech., 164, 27–51, 1986.; Armi, L. and Farmer, D M.: A Generalization of the concept of Maximal Exchange in a Strait, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 14 679–14 680, 1987.; Bray, N., Ochoa, W J., and Kinder, T.: The role of the interface in exchange through the Strai...

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Surface Expression of Mediterranean Water Dipoles and Their Contri...

By: I. Ambar; D. Boutov; N. Serra

Description: Institut für Meereskunde, Universität Hamburg, Germany. The generation of dipolar eddies within the Mediterranean Water (MW) layers, at the Portuguese continental slope, was observed using subsurface RAFOS floats. The surface expression of these mid-depth dipoles is here characterized with remote sensing data, namely with sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration and sea surface height measurements. Two cases are presented demonstrat...

Afansyev, Y., Kostianoy, A., Zatsepin, A., and coauthors: Analysis of velocity field in the eastern Black Sea from satellite data during the Black Sea 1999 experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C8), 3098, doi:10.1029/2000JC000578, 2002.; Ambar, I. and Howe, M.: Observations of the Mediterranean outflow – I: Mixing in the Mediterranean outflow, Deep-Sea Res., 26, 535–554, 1979.; Armi, L. and Zenk, W.: Large lenses of highly s...

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Descent and Mixing of the Overflow Plume from Storfjord in Svalbar...

By: B. Ådlandsvik; I. Fer

Description: Geophysical Institute, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway. Storfjorden in the Svalbard Archipelago is a sill-fjord that produces significant volumes of dense, brine-enriched shelf water through ice formation. The dense water produced in the fjord overflows the sill and can reach deep into the Fram Strait. For conditions corresponding to a moderate ice production year, the pathway of the overflow, its descent and evolving water mass properties due to m...

Baines, P. G. and Condie, S.: Observations and modelling of Antarctic downslope flows: a review, in: Ocean, ice and atmosphere: interactions at the Antarctic continental margin, Antarctic Research Series, American Geophysical Union, 29–49, 1998.; Aagaard, K., Coachman, L. K., and Carmack, E.: On the halocline of the Arctic Ocean, Deep-Sea Res., 28A, 529–545, 1981.; Anderson, L. G., Falck, E., Jones, E. P., Jutterström, S., and Swift, J. H.: Enhanced uptake of atmospheric...

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Upper Layer Current Variability in the Central Ligurian Sea : Volu...

By: A. Cappelletti; S. Sparnocchia; R. Bozzano; M. E. Schiano; S. Pensieri; P. Picco

Description: ENEA CRAM, Forte S. Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici (SP), Italy. Long-time series of surface currents and meteorological parameters were analysed to estimate the variability of the upper layer circulation and the response to the local winds. Current meter data were collected by an upward-looking RDI Sentinel 300 kHz ADCP deployed in the Central Ligurian Sea (43°47.77' N; 9°02.85' E) near the meteo-oceanographic buoy ODAS Italia 1 for more than eight mo...

Astraldi, M. and Manzella, G. M. R.: Some observations on current measurements on the Eastern Ligurian Shelf, Mediterranean Sea, Cont. Shelf Res., 2, 183–193, 1983.; Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G. P., Manzella, G., and Hopkins, T. S.: Temporal variability of currents in the Eastern Ligurian Sea, J. Geophys. Res., 95(C2), 1515–1522, 1990.; Borzelli G. and Ligi R.: Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis of SST Image Series: a Physical Interpretation, J. Atmosph. Ocean. Tech.,...

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Density and Absolute Salinity of the Baltic Sea 2006–2009 : Volume...

By: S. Weinreben; H. Wolf; B. Adel; P. Spitzer; D. G. Wright; R. Feistel; G. Nausch; S. Seitz; B. Schneider

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The brackish water of the Baltic Sea is a mixture of ocean water from the Atlantic/North Sea with fresh water from various rivers draining a large area of lowlands and mountain ranges. The evaporation-precipitation balance results in an additional but minor excess of fresh water. The rivers carry different loads of salts washed out of the ground, in particular calcium carbonate, which...

Anderko, A. and Lencka, M. M.: Computation of electrical conductivity of multicomponent aqueous systems in wide concentration and temperature ranges, Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 36, 1932–1943, 1997.; Brinkmann, F., Dam, N. E., Deák, E., Durbiano, F., Ferrara, E., Fükö, J., Jensen, H. D., Máriássy, M., Shreiner, R. H., Spitzer, P., Sudmeier, U., Surdu, M., and Vyskocil, L.: Primary methods for the measurement of electrolytic conductivity, Accred. Qual. Assur., 8, 346–353, 2003....

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Medargo: a Drifting Profiler Program in the Mediterranean Sea : Vo...

By: C. Millot; S. Le Bras; A. Cruzado; I. Gertman; L. Petit De La Villeon; V. Rupolo; R. Barbanti; P.-m. Poulain; J. Font; A. Griffa; A. Molcard

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), Trieste, Italy. In the framework of the EU-funded MFSTEP project, autonomous drifting profilers were deployed throughout the Mediterranean Sea to collect temperature and salinity profile data and to measure subsurface currents. The realization of this profiler program in the Mediterranean, referred to as MedArgo, is described and assessed using data collected between June 2004 and Dec...

Poulain, P.-M. and Zambianchi, E.: Near-surface circulation in the central Mediterranean Sea as deduced from Lagrangian drifters in the 1990's, Cont. Shelf Res., 27(7), 981–1001, 2007.; Rupolo, W.: Task 4120: Intermediate currents. MFSTEP deliverable WP4D2 (http://poseidon.ogs.trieste.it/WP4/pdf/TASK4120.pdf), 2003a.; Rupolo, W.: Task 4130: Temperature and salinity. MFSTEP deliverable WP4D6 (http://poseidon.ogs.trieste.it/WP4/pdf/TASK4130.pdf), 2003b.; Salas, J., Garcia-...

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A Practical Scheme to Introduce Explicit Tidal Forcing Into Ogcm :...

By: H. Nakano; M. Hirabara; H. Tsujino; G. Yamanaka; K. Sakamoto

Description: Oceanographic Research Department, Meteorological Research Institute, Nagamine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0052, Japan. A practical scheme is proposed to introduce tides explicitly into ocean general circulation models (OGCM). In this scheme, barotropic linear response to the tidal forcing is calculated by the time differential equations modified for ocean tides, instead of the original barotropic equations of OGCM. This allows usage of various parameterizations...

Arbic, B. K., Garner, S. T., Hallberg, R. W., and Simmons, H. L.: The accuracy of surface elevations in forward global barotropic and baroclinic tide models, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 51, 3069–3101, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2004.09.014, 2004.%; Arbic, B. K., Wallcraft, A. J., and Metzger, E. J.: Concurrent simulation of the eddying general circulation and tides in a global ocean model, Ocean Model., 32, 175–187, doi:

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Impact of Global Ocean Model Resolution on Sea-level Variability w...

By: M. Juza; G. C. Smith; J.-m. Molines; L. Brodeau; B. Barnier; T. Penduff; A.-m. Treguier; G. Madec

Description: Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels, UMR 5519, CNRS and Université de Grenoble, BP 53, 38041, Grenoble, France. Four global ocean/sea-ice simulations driven by the same realistic 47-year daily atmospheric forcing were performed by the DRAKKAR group at 2°, 1°, ½°, and ¼° resolutions. Simulated mean sea-surface heights (MSSH) and sea-level anomalies (SLA) are collocated over the period 1993–2004 onto the AVISO dataset. MSSH fields ...

Arakawa, A. and Lamb, V.: A potential enstrophy and energy conserving scheme for the shallow water equations, Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 18–36, 1981.; Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J.-M., Treguier, A.-M., le Sommer, J., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., B{ö}ning, C., Dengg, J., Derval, C., Durand, E., Gulev, S., Remy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., McClean, J., and de Cuevas, B.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global cir...

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