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Problems with Estimating Oceanic Heat Transport – Conceptual Remar...

By: U. Schauer; A. Beszczynska-möller

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. While the concept of oceanic heat transport – or rather heat transport divergence – is known since long, it is sometimes applied inaccurately. Often temperature transports are computed across sections with unbalanced volume flow which then depend entirely on the choice of the temperature scale. The consequences of such arbitrariness are demonstrated with a simple calculation e...

Cuny, J., Rhines Peter B. , and Kwok, R.: Davis Strait volume, freshwater and heat fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. I, 52(3), 519–542, 2005.; Fahrbach, E., Meincke, J., Østerhus, S., Rohardt, G., Schauer, U., Tverberg, V., and Verduin, J.: Direct measurements of volume transports through Fram Strait, Polar Res., 20(2), 217–224, 2001.; Hall, M. M. and Bryden, H. L.: Direct estimates and mechanisms of ocean heat transport, Deep-Sea Res. I, 29, 339–359, 1982.; Ingvaldsen, R. B., Aspli...

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Oil Spills Prediction in the Bonifacio Strait Area, Western Medite...

By: A. Olita; M. Sinerchia; A. Satta; A. Ribotti; L. Fazioli; A. Perilli; B. Sorgente; R. Sorgente; M. Borghini; A. Cucco; K. Schroeder

Description: CNR IAMC U.O.S. Oristano, Oristano, Italy. An innovative forecasting system of the coastal marine circulation has been implemented in the Bonifacio Strait area, between Corsica and Sardinia, using a numerical approach to facilitate the rapid planning and coordination of remedial actions to oil spill emergencies at sea by local authorities. Downscaling and nesting techniques from regional to coastal scale and a 3-D hydrodynamic numerical model, coupled w...

Bellafiore, D., Umgiesser, G., and Cucco, A.: Modeling the water exchange between the Venice Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea, Ocean Dyn., 58, 397–413, 2008.; Bajo, M., Zampato, L., Umgiesser, G., Cucco, A., Canestrelli, P.. A finite element operational model for the storm surge prediction in Venice. Estuarine, Coast. Shelf Sci., 75, 236-2-49, 2007.; Blumberg, A.-F. and Mellor, G.: A description of a three-dimensional coastal ocean circulation model, in: Three-dimensional Coa...

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New Constraints on the Eastern Mediterranean Δ18O:ΔD Relationship ...

By: G. A. Schmidt; R. Schiebel; D. A. Winter; K. A. Cox; M. Bolshaw; E. J. Rohling; S. Bacon; H. J. Spero

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. Previous work on oxygen and hydrogen isotope data from Eastern Mediterranean water samples has defined a mixing relationship in this region that is different from the world surface ocean. This prompted speculations about the hydrological processes in the Mediterranean region. We present new Δ18O and ΔD data from the Eastern Mediterranean region and the East G...

Aharon, P. and Chappell, J.: Oxygen isotopes, sea-level changes and the temperature history of a coral-reef environment in New Guinea over the last 105 years, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 56, 337–379, 1986.; Cappa, C. D., Hendricks, M. B., DePaolo, D. J., and Cohen, R. C.: Isotopic fractionation of water during evaporation, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 4525, 2003.; Craig, H.: Isotopic variations in meteoric waters, Science, 133, 1702–1703, 1961.; Delaygue, G....

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Sensitivity of Phytoplankton Distributions to Vertical Mixing Alon...

By: H. J. Van Der Woerd; H. A. Dijkstra; L. Hahn-woernle

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht (IMAU), Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80.005, 3508 TA Utrecht, the Netherlands. Using in situ data of upper ocean vertical mixing along a transect in the North Atlantic and a one-dimensional phytoplankton growth model, we study the sensitivity of the surface phytoplankton concentration to vertical mixing distributions. The study is divided into two parts. In the first par...

Antoine, D., Morel, A., Gordon, H., Banzon, V., and Evans, R.: Bridging ocean color observations of the 1980s and 2000s in search of long-term trends, J. Geophys. Res., 110, C06009, doi:10.1029/2004JC002620, 2005.; Beckmann, A. and Hense, I.: Beneath the surface: Characteristics of oceanic ecosystems under weak mixing conditions – A theoretical investigation, Prog. Oceanogr., 75, 771–796,

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Changes in Extreme Regional Sea Surface Height Due to an Abrupt We...

By: J. Maassen; E. Bal; M. Van Meersbergen; H. A. Dijkstra; M. A. Kliphuis; F. Seinstra; S.-e. Brunnabend; B. Van Werkhoven

Description: Institute of Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584 CC Utrecht, the Netherlands. As an extreme scenario of dynamical sea level changes, regional sea surface height (SSH) changes that occur in the North Atlantic due to an abrupt weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) are simulated. Two versions of the same ocean-only model are used to study the effect of ocean model resolution...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Thermosteric sea level rise, 1955–2003, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, l12602, doi:10.1029/2005GL023112, 2005.; Berge-Nguyen, M., Cazenave, A., Lombard, A., Liovel, W., Viarra, J., and Cretaux, J. F.: Reconstruction of past decades sea level using thermosteric sea level, tide gauge, satellite altimetry and ocean reanalysis data, Global Planet. Change, 62, 1–13,

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Residual Circulation and Freshwater Transport in the Dutch Wadden ...

By: M. Duran-matute; U. Gräwe; J. J. Nauw; T. Gerkema; G. J. De Boer

Description: Dept. of Physical Oceanography, Royal NIOZ, P.O. Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg (Texel), the Netherlands. The Dutch Wadden Sea is a region of intertidal flats located between the chain of Wadden Islands and the Dutch mainland. We present numerical model results on the tidal prisms and residual flows through the tidal inlets and across one of the main watersheds. The model also provides insight into the pathways of fresh water originating from the two sluices...

Abdelrhman, M. A.: Simplified modeling of flushing and residence times in 42 embayments in New England, USA, with special attention to Greenwich Bay, Rhode Island, Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 62, 339–351, 2005.; Bolin, B. and Rodhe, H.: A note on the concepts of age distribution and transit time in natural reservoirs, Tellus, 25, 58–62, 1973.; Buijsman, M. C. and Ridderinkhof, H.: Long-term ferry-ADCP observations of tidal currents in the Marsdiep inlet, Cont. Shelf Res., 5...

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Assessment of a Physical-biogeochemical Coupled Model System for O...

By: L. Jonasson; J. She; M. Maar; Z. Wan; J. Baasch-larsen

Description: Centre for Ocean and Ice, Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, Copenhagen, Denmark. Thanks to the abundant observation data, we are able to deploy the traditional point-to-point comparison and statistical measures in combination with a comprehensive model validation scheme to assess the skills of the biogeochemical model ERGOM in providing an operational service for the Baltic Sea. The model assessment concludes that the operational products ...

Allen, J. I., Holt, T. J., Blackford, J., and Proctor, R.: Error quantification of a high-resolution coupled hydrodynamic-ecosystem coastal-ocean model: Part 2. Chlorophyll-a, nutrients and SPM, J. Marine Syst., 68, 381–404, 2007.; Almroth, E. and Skogen, M. D.: A North Sea and Baltic Sea model ensemble eutrophication assessment, Ambio, 39, 59–69, 2010.; Berg, P. and Poulsen, J. W.: Implementation details for HBM, DMI Technical Report No. 12–11, ISSN: 1399-1388, Copenhag...

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Tracers Confirm Downward Mixing of Tyrrhenian Sea Upper Waters Ass...

By: J. E. Lupton; W. Roether

Description: Institut für Umweltphysik, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Observations of tritium and 3He in the Tyrrhenian Sea, 1987–2009, confirm the enhanced convective mixing of intermediate waters into the deep waters that has been noted and associated with the Eastern Mediterranean Transient in previous studies. Our evidence for the mixing rests on increasing tracer concentrations in the Tyrrhenian deep waters, accompanied by decreases in the upp...

Béthoux, J.-P., Gentili, B., and Tailliez, D.: Warming and freshwater budget change in the Mediterranean since the 1940s, their possible relation to the greenhouse effect, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(7), 1023–1026, 1998.; Cortecci, G., Molcard, R., and Noto, P.: Isotopic analysis of the deep structure in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Nature, 250, 134–136, 1974.; Andrie, C. and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean during the 1981 Phycemed cruise, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35(2...

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Reduced-order Optimal Interpolation for Biomass Assimilation : Vol...

By: G. Crispi; D. Viezzoli; M. Pacciaroni

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale, Italy. The analysis of the evolution of the chemical and biological characteristics of the Mediterranean marine ecosystem requires an integrated approach. Consistently, an ecosystem description, embedded in the MFSTEP one eighth degree three-dimensional general circulation model, is tested and used following a twin experiment approach. The ecosystem model is based on the NPZD trophic chain:...

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Coastal Upwelling Along the Southwest Coast of India – Enso Modula...

By: V. Kovačević; M. Gačić; K. Muni Krishna

Description: Dept. of Meteorology and Oceanography, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam – 530 003, India. An index of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the Pacific during pre monsoon is shown to account for a significant part of the variability of coastal Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies measured a few months later within the wind driven southwest coast of India coastal upwelling region 7° N–14° N. This teleconnection is thought to result from an atmospheri...

Banse, K.: On upwelling and bottom-trawling off the southwest coast of India, J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. India, 1, 33–49, 1959.; Banse, K.: Hydrography of the Arabian Sea shelf of India and Pakistan and effects on dimersal fishes, Deep Sea Res., 15, 45–79, 1968.; Bohua Huang and Shukla, J.: Mechanisms for the Interannual Variability in the Tropical Indian Ocean. Part II: Regional Processes, J. Climate, 17, 2937–2960, 2007; Darbyshire, M.: The surface waters off the coast of Ke...

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A Modelling Study of the Hydrographic Structure of the Ross Sea : ...

By: E. Curchitser; I. Wainer; M. Tonelli

Description: Oceanographic Institute, University of Sao Paulo, Praca do Oceanografico, 191, Sao Paulo, SP 05508-120, Brazil. Dense water formation around Antarctica is recognized as one of the most important processes to climate modulation, since that is where the linkage between the upper and lower limbs of Global Thermohaline Circulation takes place. Assessing whether these processes may be affected by rapid climate changes and all the related feedbacks may be ...

Assmann, K., Hellmer, H., and Beckmann, A.: Seasonal variation in circulation and water mass distribution on the Ross Sea continental shelf, Antarct. Sci., 15, 3–11, 2003.; Bergamasco, A., Defendi, V., and Meloni, R.: Some dynamics of water outflow from beneath the Ross Ice Shelf during 1995 and 1996, Antarct. Sci., 14, 74–82, 2002{a}.; Bergamasco, A., Defendi, V., Zambianchi, E., and Spezie, G.: Evidence of dense water overflow on the Ross Sea shelf-break, Antarct. Sci....

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First Images and Orientation of Internal Waves from a 3-d Seismic ...

By: W. S. Holbrook; T. M. Blacic

Description: University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics Department, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY, 82071, USA. We present 3-D images of ocean finestructure from a unique industry-collected 3-D multichannel seismic dataset from the Gulf of Mexico that includes expendable bathythermograpgh casts for both swaths. 2-D processing reveals strong laterally continuous reflectors throughout the upper ~800 m as well as a few weaker but still distinct reflectors as de...

Biescas, B., Sallarès, V., Pelegrí, J. L., Machín, F., Carbonell, R., Buffet, G., Dañobeitia, J. J., and Calahorrano, A.: Imaging meddy finestructure using multichannel seismic reflection data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11609, doi:10.1029/2008GL033971, 2008.; Cooper, C., Forristall, G. Z., and Joyce, T. M.: Velocity and hydrographic structure of two Gulf of Mexico warm-core rings, J. Geophys. Res., 95(C2), 1663–1679, 1990.; Egbert, G. D., Bennett, A. F., and Foreman, M. ...

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Ensurf: Multi-model Sea Level Forecast – Implementation and Valida...

By: K. Lyons; J. Beckers; D. Paradis; B. Hacket; E. Alvarez Fanjul; B. Pérez; R. Brower; C. Balseiro; M. Cure; M. Verlaan; M. G. Sotillo

Description: Organismo Público Puertos del Estado (OPPE), Madrid, Spain. ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of existing storm surge or circulation models today operational in Europe, as well as near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals:

– providing an easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate...

Alvarez Fanjul, E., Pérez Gómez, B., and Rodríguez, I.: A description of tides in the Eastern North Atlantic, Prog. Oceanogr., 40, 217–244, 1997.; Alvarez Fanjul, E., Pérez, B., and Sánchez-Arévalo, I. R.: Nivmar: A storm surge forecasting system for the Spanish Waters. Scientia Marina, 65, 145–154, 2001.; Backhaus, J. O.: A semi-implicit scheme for the shallow water equations for application to shelf sea modeling, Cont. Shelf Res., 2(4), 243–254, 1983.; Beckers, J. V. L...

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Characterization of Mixing Errors in a Coupled Physical Biogeochem...

By: P. Brasseur; J. Verron; Y. Ourmières; J.-m. Brankart; D. Béal

Description: LEGI/CNRS, Université de Grenoble, CNRS, BP 53X, 38041 Grenoble, France. In biogeochemical models coupled to ocean circulation models, vertical mixing is an important physical process which governs the nutrient supply and the plankton residence in the euphotic layer. However, vertical mixing is often poorly represented in numerical simulations because of approximate parameterizations of sub-grid scale turbulence, wind forcing errors and other mis-repres...

Barnier, B., Madec, G., Penduff, T., Molines, J. M., Tréguier, A. M., Beckmann, A., Biastoch, A., Boning, C., Dengg, J., Gulev, S., Le Sommer, J., Rémy, E., Talandier, C., Theetten, S., Maltrud, M., and Mc Lean, J.: Impact of partial steps and momentum advection schemes in a global ocean circulation model at eddy permitting resolution, Ocean Dynam., 56(5–6), 543–567, 2006.; Berline, L., Brankart, J.-M., Brasseur, P., Ourmières, Y., and Verron, J.: Improving the physics o...

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Subsurface Primary Production in the Western Subtropical North Pac...

By: K. Toyama; T. Saino; T. Suga; C. Sukigara; D. Yanagimoto; K. Hanawa; N. Shikama

Description: Department of Geophysics, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan. A profiling float equipped with a fluorometer, a dissolved oxygen sensor, and temperature and salinity sensors was deployed in the Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) formation region. It acquired quasi-Lagrangian, 5-day-interval time-series records from March to July 2006. The time-series distribution of chlorophyll a showed a sustained and sizable deep chlorophyll maximum at 50–80 m, just above the...

Cullen, J. J.: The deep chlorophyll maximum: Comparing vertical profiles of Chlorophyll-a, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 39, 791–803, 1982.; Dugdale, R. C. and Goering, J. J.: Uptake of new and regenerated forms of nitrogen in primary productivity, Limnol. Oceanogr., 12, 196–206, 1967.; Dugdale, R. and Wilkerson, F.: Nutrient limitation of new production in the sea, Primary Productivity and Biogeochemical Cycles in the Sea, edited by: Falkowski, P. G. and Woodhead, A...

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Trends in Coastal Upwelling Intensity During the Late 20Th Century...

By: M. Schulz; A. Paul; S. Mulitza; N. Narayan

Description: MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences and Faculty of Geosciences, University of Bremen, Germany. This study presents linear trends of coastal upwelling intensity in the later part of the 20th century (1960–2001) employing various indices of upwelling, derived from meridional wind stress and sea surface temperature. The analysis was conducted in the four major coastal upwelling regions in the world, which are off North-West Africa, Lüderitz, Ca...

Bakun, A.: Global climate change and intensification of coastal ocean upwelling, Science, 247, 198–201, 1990.; Barnston, A. G. and Livezey, R. E.: Classification, seasonality and persistence of low-frequency atmospheric circulation patterns, Mon. Weather Rev., 115, 1083–1126, online available at: http://www.cpc.noaa.gov/products/precip/CWlink/pna/norm.nao.monthly.b5001.current...

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The Contribution of Eastern-boundary Density Variations to the Atl...

By: W. E. Johns; T. Kanzow; J. Marotzke; M. P. Chidichimo; S. A. Cunningham

Description: Ozean im Erdsystem, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie, Bundesstraße 53, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. We study the contribution of eastern-boundary density variations to sub-seasonal and seasonal anomalies of the strength and vertical structure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) at 26.5° N, by means of the RAPID/MOCHA mooring array between April 2004 and October 2007. The major density anomalies are found in the upper 500 m, and they ...

Baringer, M. O. and Larsen, J. C.: Sixteen years of Florida Current transport at 27° N, Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(16), 3179–3182, 2001.; Baringer, M. O., Johns, W. E., Meinen, C. S., Shoosmith, D., and Bryden, H. L.: On the Structure of Florida Current Variability. Poster presentation at the Rapid Climate Change 2008 annual meeting, Cambridge, UK, online available at: http://www.noc.soton.ac.uk/rapid...

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Modeling of Wave-induced Irradiance Variability in the Upper Ocean...

By: O. Zielinski; M. Hieronymi; A. MacKe

Description: Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences, IFM-GEOMAR, Kiel, Germany. A Monte Carlo based radiative transfer model has been developed for calculating the availability of solar radiation within the top 100 m of the ocean. The model is optimized for simulations of spatial high resolution downwelling irradiance Ed fluctuations that arise from the lensing effect of waves at the water surface. In a first step the accuracy of simulation results h...

Babanin, A. V.: On a wave-induced turbulence and a wave-mixed upper ocean layer, Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L20605, doi:10.1029/2006GL027308, 2006.; Cox, C. and Munk, W.: Measurements of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun's glitter, J. Opt. Society Am., 44, 838–850, 1954.; Cullen, J. J.: The deep chlorophyll maximum: comparing vertical profiles of chlorophyll a, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 39, 791–...

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Changes in Ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea During the Past 25...

By: T. Tanhua; R. Steinfeldt; A. Schneider; W. Roether

Description: GEOMAR Helmholtz Center for Ocean Research Kiel, Kiel, Germany. The Mediterranean Sea has a fast overturning circulation and the deep water masses are well ventilated in comparison to the deep waters of the world ocean. Significant changes in the overturning circulation has been observed during the last few decades, the most prominent phenomena being the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) in the early 1990s and the Western Mediterranean Transit (WMT...

Astraldi, M., Gasparini, G., Sparnocchia, S., Moretti, M., and Sansone, E.: The characteristics of the water masses and the water transport in the Sicily Strait at long time scales, in: Dynamics of Mediterranean Straits and Channels, edited by: Briand, F., Bulletin de l'Institut Océanographique, vol. 17, 95–115, 1996.; Bullister, J. and Weiss, R.: Determination of CCL3F and CCL2F2 in seawater and air, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35...

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Chl A Trends in European Seas Estimated Using Ocean-colour Product...

By: V. Lyubarstev; N. Pinardi; S. Colella; R. Santoleri; G. Coppini; T. Christiansen

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Bologna, Italy. Ocean-colour remote-sensing products have been used to estimate Chl a trends in European seas. This work aims to develop a new indicator based on ocean-colour data for the European Environment Agency (EEA). The new indicator, called CSI023(+), produced from satellite ocean-colour products from the MyOcean Marine Core Service (www.myocean....

D'Ortenzio, F. and Ribera d'Alcalà, M.: On the trophic regimes of the Mediterranean Sea: a satellite analysis, Biogeosciences, 6, 139–148, doi:10.5194/bg-6-139-2009, 2009.; Ferreira, J. G., Andersen, J. H., Borja, A., Bricker, S. B., Camp, J., Cardoso da Silva, M., Garcés, E., Heiskanen, A.-S., Humborg, C., Ignatiades, L., Lancelot, C., Menesguen, A., Tett, P., Hoepffner, N., and Claussen, U.: Overview of eutrophication...

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