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Technical Note: a Mobile Sea-going Mesocosm System – New Opportuni...

By: U. Riebesell; S. A. Krug; M. Fischer; J. Büdenbender; U. Lentz; D. Hoffmann; T. Boxhammer; K. Von Bröckel; M. Deckelnick; J. Czerny; K. G. Schulz; A. Ludwig; R. Muche

Description: GEOMAR – Helmholtz Zentrum für Ozeanforschung Kiel, 24105 Kiel, Germany. One of the great challenges in ocean change research is to understand and forecast the effects of environmental changes on pelagic communities and the associated impacts on biogeochemical cycling. Mesocosms, experimental enclosures designed to approximate natural conditions, and in which environmental factors can be manipulated and closely monitored, provide a powerful tool to c...

Barry, J. P., Widdicombe, S., and Hall-Spencer, J. M.: Effects of ocean acidification on marine biodiversity and ecosystem function, in: Ocean Acidification, edited by: Gattuso, J.-P. and Hansson, L., Oxford University Press, 192–209, 2010.; Barry, J. P., Tyrrell, T., Hansson, L., Plattner, G.-K., and Gattuso, J.-P.: Atmospheric CO2 targets for ocean acidification perturbation experiments, in: Guide to Best Practices in Ocean Acidification Research and Data Re...

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The Value of Adding Optics to Ecosystem Models: a Case Study : Vol...

By: F. Chai; E. Boss; M. Fujii

Description: School of Marine Sciences, 5706 Aubert Hall, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469-5706, USA. Many ecosystem models have been developed to study the ocean's biogeochemistry, but most of these models use simple formulations to describe light penetration and spectral quality. Given that processes such as photosynthesis and photo-oxidation are uniquely important for biogeochemical processes in the upper ocean, it is necessary to model light distribution acc...

Allali, K., Bricaud, A., and Claustre, H.: Spatial variations in the chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and photosynthetically active pigments in the equatorial Pacific, J. Geophys. Res., 102(C6), 12 413–12 423, 1997.; Babin, M., Morel, A., Fournier-Sicre, V., Fell, F., and Stramski, D.: Light scattering properties of marine particles in coastal and open ocean waters as related to the particle mass concentration, Limnol. Oceanogr., 48(2), 843–8...

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Anthropogenic Co2 Emissions in Africa : Volume 5, Issue 6 (19/11/2008)

By: M. R. Raupach; R. A. Houghton; J. G. Canadell

Description: Global Carbon Project, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia. An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsibl...

FAO: FAOSTAT DATA, Food and Agriculture Organization, http://faostat.fao.org, 2001a.; FAO: Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000, Main report, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forestry Paper 140, Rome, 2001b.; Canadell, J. G. and Raupach, M. R.: Managing Forests for Climate Change Mitigation, Science 320, 1456–1457, doi:10.1126/science.1155458, 2008.; Canadell, J. G., Le Quéré, C., Raupach, M. R., Field, C. B., Buitenhuis, E. T., Ciais, P., Conway, T. J., Gillett, N....

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Laboratory and Field Measurements of Enantiomeric Monoterpene Emis...

By: I. Bourgeois; M. Staudt; J. Williams; W. Song

Description: Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Hahn-Meitner-Weg 1, 55128 Mainz, Germany. Plants emit significant amounts of monoterpenes into the Earth's atmosphere where they react rapidly to form a multitude of gas phase species and particles. Many monoterpenes exist in mirror images forms or enantiomers. In this study the enantiomeric monoterpene profile for several representative plants (Quercus ilex L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Pinus h...

Aaltonen, H., Pumpanen, J., Pihlatie, M., Hakola, H., Hellen, H., Kulmala, L., Vesala, T., and Back, J.: Boreal pine forest floor biogenic volatile organic compound emissions peak in early summer and autumn, Agr. Forest Meteorol., 151, 682–691, doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.12.010, 2011.; Arneth, A. and Niinemets, U.: Induced BVOCs: how to bug our models?, Trends Plant Sci., 15, 118–125, 2010.; Arneth, A., Niin...

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Gradients in Intact Polar Diacylglycerolipids Across the Mediterra...

By: P. Conan; T. Tanaka; M. Pujo-pay; T. Moutin; B. A. S. Van Mooy; L. Oriol; C. Courties; A. Lagaria; L. E. Sofen; K. J. Popendorf

Description: Dept. of Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, MS #4, Woods Hole, MA 02543, USA. Intact polar membrane lipids compose a significant fraction of cellular material in plankton and their synthesis imposes a substantial constraint on planktonic nutrient requirements. As a part of the Biogeochemistry from the Oligotrophic to the Ultraoligtrophic Mediterranean (BOUM) cruise we examined the distribution of several classes of i...

Balkwill, D. L., Leach, F. R., Wilson, J. T., McNabb, J. F., and White, D. C.: Equivalence of microbial biomass measures based on membrane lipid and cell wall components, adenosine triphosphate, and direct counts in subsurface aquifer sediments, Microbial Ecol., 16, 73–84, 1988.; Minnikin, D. E., Abdolrahimzadeh, H., and Baddiley, J.: Replacement of acidic phospholipids by acidic glycolipids in Pseudomonas diminuta, Nature, 249, 268, 1974.; Benning, C., Beatty, J. T., Pr...

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Testing the D/H Ratio of Alkenones and Palmitic Acid as Salinity ...

By: C. M. Chiessi; E. Schefuß; C. Häggi

Description: MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The stable hydrogen isotope composition of lipid biomarkers, such as alkenones, is a promising new tool for the improvement of paleosalinity reconstructions. Laboratory studies confirmed the correlation between lipid biomarker ΔD composition (ΔDLipid), water ΔD composition (ΔDH2O) and salinity. Yet, there is limited insight in...

Bard, E., Rostek, F., and Sonzogni, C.: Interhemispheric synchrony of the last deglaciation inferred from alkenone palaeothermometry, Nature, 385, 707–710, doi:10.1038/385707a0, 1997.; Benthien, A. and Müller, P. J.: Anomalously low alkenone temperatures caused by lateral particle and sediment transport in the Malvinas Current region, western Argentine Basin, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 47, 2369–2393, doi:

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Biogeochemical Factors Contributing to Enhanced Carbon Storage Fol...

By: D. Yakir; I. Gelfand; J. M. Grünzweig

Description: Robert H. Smith Institute of Plant Sciences and Genetics in Agriculture, Faculty of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel. Ecosystems in dry regions are generally low in productivity and carbon (C) storage. We report, however, large increases in C sequestration following afforestation of a semi-arid shrubland with Pinus halepensis trees. Using C and nitrogen (N) inventories,...

Austin, A. T. and Vivanco, L.: Plant litter decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem controlled by photodegradation, Nature, 442, 555–558, 2006.; Balesdent, J. and Mariotti, A.: Measurement of soil organic matter turnover using $^13$C natural abundance, in: Mass Spectrometry of Soils, edited by: Boutton, T. W. and Yamasaki, S.-I., 83–111, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1996.; Cambardella, C. A. and Elliott, E. T.: Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultiv...

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Numerical Study of Surface Energy Partitioning on the Tibetan Plat...

By: J. Hong; J. Kim

Description: Global Environment Laboratory, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea. The Tibetan Plateau is a critical region in the research of biosphere-atmosphere interactions on both regional and global scales due to its relation to Asian summer monsoon and El Niño. The unique environment on the Plateau provides valuable information for the evaluation of the models' surface energy partitioning associated with the summer...

Arya, S. P.: Introduction to Micrometeorology, Academic Press, San Diego, California, 2001.; Beljaars, A. C.: The parameterization of surface fluxes in large-scale models under free convection, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121, 255–270, 1995.; Beljaars, A. C. and Viterbo, P.: The sensitivity of winter evaporation to the formulation of aerodynamic resistance in the ECMWF model, Bound.-Lay. Meteorol., 71, 135–149, 1994.; Brutsaert, W. and Mawdsley, J. A.: Sensible heat transfe...

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Saltwater Intrusion Into Tidal Freshwater Marshes Alters the Bioge...

By: D. J. Berrier; R. B. Franklin; S. C. Neubauer

Description: Baruch Marine Field Laboratory, University of South Carolina, Georgetown, South Carolina, USA. Environmental perturbations in wetlands affect the integrated plant-microbial-soil system, causing biogeochemical responses that can manifest at local to global scales. The objective of this study was to determine how saltwater intrusion affects carbon mineralization and greenhouse gas production in coastal wetlands. Working with tidal freshwater marsh so...

Allison, S. D. and Vitousek, P. M.: Responses of extracellular enzymes to simple and complex nutrient inputs, Soil Biol. Biochem., 37, 937–944, doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.09.014, 2005.; Baldwin, D. S., Rees, G. N., Mitchell, A. M., Watson, G., and Williams, J.: The short-term effects of salinization on anaerobic nutrient cycling and microbial community structure in sediment from a freshwater wetland, Wetlands, 2...

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Can Organic Matter Flux Profiles Be Diagnosed Using Remineralisati...

By: A. Ridgwell; S. Barker; J. D. Wilson

Description: School of Earth and Ocean Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. The average depth in the ocean at which the majority of sinking organic matter particles remineralise is a fundamental parameter in the oceans role in regulating atmospheric CO2. Observed spatial patterns in sinking fluxes and relationships between the fluxes of different particles in the modern ocean have widely been used to invoke controlling mechanisms with important impl...

Dietze, H. and Oschlies, A.: Modeling abiotic production of apparent oxygen utilisation in the oligotrophic subtropical North Atlantic, Ocean Dynam., 55, 28–33, 2005.; Anderson, L. A. and Sarmiento, J. L.: Redfield ratios of remineralization determined by nutrient data analysis, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 65–80, doi:10.1029/93GB03318, 1994.; Annan, J., Hargreaves, J., Edwards, N., and Marsh, R.: Parameter estimation in an i...

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A Simple Ecohydrological Model Captures Essentials of Seasonal Lea...

By: P. Briggs; M. Raupach; W. Sea; R. Leuning; P. Choler

Description: CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3023, Canberra, ACT, 2601, Australia. Modelling leaf phenology in water-controlled ecosystems remains a difficult task because of high spatial and temporal variability in the interaction of plant growth and soil moisture. Here, we move beyond widely used linear models to examine the performance of low-dimensional, nonlinear ecohydrological models that couple the dynamics of plant cover and soil moisture. ...

Bailey, R. G.: Identifying ecoregion boundaries, Environ. Manag., 34, S14–S26, 2004.; Archibald, S. and Scholes, R. J.: Leaf green-up in a semi-arid African savanna - separating tree and grass responses to environmental cues, J. Veg. Sci., 18, 583–594, 2007.; Blair, J. M.: Fire, N availability, and plant response in grasslands: A test of the transient maxima hypothesis, Ecology, 78, 2359–2368, 1997.; Botta, A., Viovy, N., Ciais, P., Friedlingstein, P., and Monfray...

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Responses of Lower Trophic-level Organisms to Typhoon Passage on t...

By: A. Tsuda; K. Suzuki; N. Yasuki

Description: Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan. Typhoons can induce vertical mixing, upwelling, or both in the water column due to strong wind stress. These events can induce phytoplankton blooms in the oligotrophic ocean after typhoon passage. However, little is known about the responses of lower trophic-level organisms or changes in the community structure following the passage of typhoons, particularly in off...

Andersen, R. A., Saunders, G. W., Paskind, M. P., and Sexton, J. P.: Ultrastructure and 18S ribosomal-RNA gene sequence for Pelagomonas-Calceolata gen. et sp. nov. and the description of a new algal class, the pelagophyceae classis nov., J. Phycol., 29, 701–715, doi:10.1111/j.0022-3646.1993.00701.x, 1993.; Armstrong, R. A., Lee, C., Hedges, J. I., Honjo, S., and Wakeham, S. G.: A new, mechanistic model...

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Enhanced Decomposition Offsets Enhanced Productivity and Soil Carb...

By: L. K. Blum; M. L. Kirwan

Description: US Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel MD, 20708, USA. Coastal wetlands are responsible for about half of all carbon burial in oceans, and their persistence as a valuable ecosystem depends largely on the ability to accumulate organic material at rates equivalent to relative sea level rise. Recent work suggests that elevated CO2 and temperature warming will increase organic matter productivity and the ability of marshes...

Blum, L. K.: Spartina alterniflora root dynamics in a Virginia marsh, Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser., 102, 169–178, 1993.; Bond-Lamberty, B. and Thomson, A.: Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record, Nature, 464, 579–582, 2010.; Charles H. and Dukes, J. S.: Effects of warming and altered precipitation on plant and nutrient dynamics of a New England salt marsh, Ecol. Appl., 19, 1758–1773, 2009.; Blum L. K. and Christian, R. R.: Belowground production ...

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Incorporating Changes in Albedo in Estimating the Climate Mitigati...

By: M. Kunda; A. Mayer; M. Johnston; B. Schlamadinger; L. Canella; D. N. Bird

Description: JOANNEUM RESEARCH, Elisabethstraße 5, 8010, Graz, Austria. Some climate scientists are questioning whether the practice of converting of non-forest lands to forest land (afforestation or reforestation) is an effective climate change mitigation option. The discussion focuses particularly on areas where the new forest is primarily coniferous and there is significant amount of snow since the increased climate forcing due to the change in albedo may counter...

Archer, D., Kheshgi, H., and Maier-Reimer, E. Multiple timescales for neutralization of fossil fuel CO2, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 405–408, 1997.; Bala, G., Caldeira, K., Wickett, M., Phillips, T. J., Lobell, D. B., Delire, C., and Mirin, A.: Combined Climate and Carbon-Cycle Effects of Large-Scale Deforestation, PNAS, PNAS 104, 6550–6555, 2008.; Betts, R. A.: Offset of the potential carbon sink from boreal forestation by decreases in surface albedo, Nature, 40...

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Opportunistic Feeding on Various Organic Food Sources by the Cold-...

By: A. I. Larsson; B. Veuger; J. J. Middelburg; C. E. Mueller; D. Van Oevelen

Description: Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ-Yerseke), P.O. Box 140, 4400 AC Yerseke, the Netherlands. The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C a...

Achituv, Y., Ben-Zion, M., and Mizrahi, L.: Carbohydrate, lipid, and protein composition of zooxanthellae and animal fractions of the coral Pocillopora damicornis exposed to ammonium enrichment, Pac. Sci., 48, 224–233, 1994.; Adkins, J. F., Boyle, E. A., Curry, W. B., and Lutringer, A.: Stable isotopes in deep-sea corals and a new mechanism for vital effects, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 67, 1129–1143, doi:10.101...

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Spatial Distribution and Sources of Organic Carbon in the Surface...

By: X. J. Wang; C. Y. Zhao; E. L. Zhang; Z. T. Yu; H. Y. Lan

Description: State Key Laboratory of Desert and Oasis Ecology, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 830011 Urumqi, China. Lake sediment is an important carbon reservoir. However, little is known on the dynamics and sources of sediment organic carbon in the Bosten Lake. We collected 13 surface (0–2 cm) sediment samples in the Bosten Lake and analyzed total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), stable carbon isotopic comp...

Anderson, N. J., D'Andrea, W., and Fritz, S. C.: Holocene carbon burial by lakes in SW Greenland, Glob. Change Biol., 15, 2590–2598, 2009.; Anderson, N. J., Dietz, R. D., and Engstrom, D. R.: Land-use change, not climate, controls organic carbon burial in lakes, P. Roy. Soc. B-Biol. Sci., 280, doi:10.1098/rspb.2013.1278, 2013.; Barnes, M. A. and Barnes, W. C.: Organic Compounds in Lake Sediments, in: Lakes, edited by: ...

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Atmospheric Co2 Seasonality and the Air-sea Flux of Co2 : Volume 8...

By: P. R. Halloran

Description: Met Office Hadley Centre, FitzRoy Road, Exeter, Devon, EX1 3PB, UK. The amplitude, phase, and form of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO2 concentrations varies on many time and space-scales (Peters et al., 2007). Intra-annual CO2 variation is primarily driven by seasonal uptake and release of CO2 by the terrestrial biosphere (Machta et al., 1977; Buchwitz et al., 2007), with a small (Cadule et al., 2010), but potentiall...

Cai, W.-J., Chen, L., Chen, B., Gao, Z., Lee, S. H., Chen, J., Pierrot, D., Sullivan, K., Wang, Y., Hu, X., Huang, W.-J., Zhang, Y., Xu, S., Murata, A., Grebmeier, J. M., Jones, E. P., and Zhang, H.: Decrease in the CO2 Uptake Capacity in an Ice-Free Arctic Ocean Basin, Science, 329, 556–559, doi:{{10.1126/science.1189338}}, 2010.; Collins, W. J., Bellouin, N., Doutriaux-Boucher, M., Gedney, N., Hinton, T., Jones, C.D. andLiddicoat, S., Martin, G., O'Connor, F...

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Does Juncus Effusus Enhance Methane Emissions from Grazed Pastures...

By: B. K. Sorrell; H. Brix; L. Elsgaard; S. O. Petersen; A. Henneberg

Description: Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Ole Worms Allé 1, Building 1135, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark. Methane (CH4) emissions from drained organic soils are generally low, but internal gas transport in aerenchymatous plants may result in local emission hotspots. In a paired-sample field study at three different sites we measured fluxes of CH4 with static chambers from adjacent sampling quadrats with and without Juncus effu...

Audet, J., Johansen, J. R., Andersen, P. M., Baattrup-Pedersen, A., Brask-Jensen, K. M., Elsgaard, L., Kjaergaard, C., Larsen, S. E., and Hoffmann, C. C.: Methane emissions in Danish riparian wetlands: ecosystem comparison and pursuit of vegetation indexes as predictive tools, Ecol. Indic., 34, 548–559, 2013.; Bates, D., Maechler, M., and Bolker, B.: lme4: Linear Mixed-Effects Models Using S4 Classes, R Package Version 0.999999-0, available at:

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Characteristics and Assessment of Biogenic Phosphorus in Sediments...

By: W. Z. Tang; H. Zhang; B. Q. Shan; W. Q. Zhang

Description: State Key Laboratory on Environmental Aquatic Chemistry, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100085, China. We studied the phosphorus (P) pollution, as described by concentrations, distribution and transformation potential, of sediments of the water scarce and heavily polluted Fuyang River, a tributary of the Haihe River, using P fractionation and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (31...

Anderson, G.: A partial fractionation of alkali-solution organic phosphate, Journal Soil Sci., % 12, 276–285, 1961.; Ahlgren, J., Tranvik, L., Gogoll, A., Waldeback, M., Markides, K., and Rydin, E.: Sediment depth attenuation of biogenic phosphorus compounds measured by 31P NMR, Environ. Sci. Technol., % 39, 867–872, 2005.; Ahlgren, J., Reitzel, K., Tranvik, L., Gogoll, A., and Rydin, E.: Degradation of organic phosphorus compounds in anoxic Baltic Sea sedimen...

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Carbonate Saturation State of Surface Waters in the Ross Sea and S...

By: R. B. Dunbar; D. A. Koweek; D. A. Mucciarone; H. B. Dejong

Description: Department of Earth System Science, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA. Predicting when surface waters of the Ross Sea and Southern Ocean will become undersaturated with respect to biogenic carbonate minerals is challenging in part due to the lack of baseline high resolution carbon system data. Here we present ~ 1700 surface total alkalinity measurements from the Ross Sea and along a transect between the Ross Sea and southern Chile fr...

Accornero, A., Manno, C., Esposito, F., and Gambi, M. C.: The vertical flux of particulate matter in the polynya of Terra Nova Bay. Part II. Biological components, Antarct. Sci., 15, 175–188, doi:10.1017/S0954102003001214, 2003.; Andersson, A. J., Mackenzie, F. T., and Gattuso, J.-P.: Effects of ocean acidification on benthic processes, organisms, and ecosystems, in: Ocean Acidification, edited by: Gattuso, J.-P. an...

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