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New Constraints on the Eastern Mediterranean Δ18O:ΔD Relationship ...

By: G. A. Schmidt; R. Schiebel; D. A. Winter; K. A. Cox; M. Bolshaw; E. J. Rohling; S. Bacon; H. J. Spero

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Southampton SO14 3ZH, UK. Previous work on oxygen and hydrogen isotope data from Eastern Mediterranean water samples has defined a mixing relationship in this region that is different from the world surface ocean. This prompted speculations about the hydrological processes in the Mediterranean region. We present new Δ18O and ΔD data from the Eastern Mediterranean region and the East G...

Aharon, P. and Chappell, J.: Oxygen isotopes, sea-level changes and the temperature history of a coral-reef environment in New Guinea over the last 105 years, Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol., 56, 337–379, 1986.; Cappa, C. D., Hendricks, M. B., DePaolo, D. J., and Cohen, R. C.: Isotopic fractionation of water during evaporation, J. Geophys. Res., 108(D16), 4525, 2003.; Craig, H.: Isotopic variations in meteoric waters, Science, 133, 1702–1703, 1961.; Delaygue, G....

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The Role of Continental Shelves in Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling: No...

By: K. Fennel

Description: Dalhousie University, Department of Oceanography, Halifax, Canada. Continental shelves play a key role in the cycling of nitrogen and carbon. Here the physical transport and biogeochemical transformation processes affecting the fluxes into and out of continental shelf systems are reviewed, and their role in the global cycling of both elements is discussed. Uncertainties in the magnitude of organic and inorganic matter exchange between s...

Bauer, J. E., Druffel, E. R. M., Wolgast, D. M., Griffin. S.: Sources and cycling of dissolved and particulate organic radiocarbon in the northwest Atlantic continental margin, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 15, 615–636, 2001.; Belkin, I. M.: Propagation of the Great Salinity Anomaly of the 1990s around the northern North Atlantic, Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L08306, doi:10.1029/2003GL019334, 2004.; Bianchi, T. S., DiMarco, S., Co...

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Tidal Variability of the Motion in the Strait of Otranto : Volume ...

By: V. Kovačević; M. Gačić; L. Ursella

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), B.go Grotta Gigante 42/c, 34010 Sgonico (TS), Italy. Various current data, collected in the Strait of Otranto during the period 1994–2007, have been analysed with the aim of describing the characteristics of the tidal motions and their contribution to the total flow variance. The principal tidal constituents in the area were the semi-diurnal (M2) and the diurnal (K1), with the latter o...

Torrence, C. and Webster, P. J.: Interdecadal changes in the ENSO-monsoon System, J. Climate, 12, 2679–2690, 1999.; Baines, P. G.: Internal tides, internal waves and near-inertial motions, in: Baroclinic Processes on Continental Shelves, edited by: Mooers, C. N. K., AGU, Washington, D.C., 19–31, 1986.; Beckenbach, E. and Terrill, E.: Internal tides over abrupt topography in the Southern California Bight: observations of diurnal waves poleward of the critical latitude, J....

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Characterisation and Quantification of Regional Diurnal Sst Cycles...

By: J. L. Høyer; I. Karagali

Description: DTU Wind Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Risø Campus, Building 125, Roskilde, 4000, Denmark. Hourly SST fields from the geostationary Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) offer a unique opportunity for the characterisation and quantification of the diurnal cycle of SST in the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Northern European Shelf seas. Six years of SST fields from the SEVIRI dataset are validated against th...

Eastwood, S., Le Borgne, P., Péré, S., and Poulter, D.: Diurnal variability in sea surface in the Arctic, Remote Sens. Environ., 115, 2594–2602, 2011.; Bellenger, H. and Duvel, J. P.: An analysis of ocean diurnal warm layers over tropical oceans, J. Climate, 22, 3629–3646, 2009.; Bellenger, H., Takayabu, Y. N., Ushiyama, T., and Yoneyama, K.: Role of diurnal warm layers in the diurnal cycle of convection over the tropical Indian Ocean during MISMO, Mon. Weather Rev., 138...

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Numerical Implementation and Oceanographic Application of the Gibb...

By: V. Tchijov; R. Feistel; C. Guder; W. Wagner

Description: Baltic Sea Research Institute, Seestraße 15, D-18119 Warnemünde, Germany. The 2004 Gibbs thermodynamic potential function of naturally abundant water ice is based on much more experimental data than its predecessors, is therefore significantly more accurate and reliable, and for the first time describes the entire temperature and pressure range of existence of this ice phase. It is expressed in the ITS-90 temperature scale and is consistent with the cur...

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Corrigendum to Biogeography of Planktonic Bacterial Communities Ac...

By: R. Alvariño; M. Barbato; V. Hernando-morales; S. Borin; E. Teira; F. Mapelli; D. Daffonchio; M. Álvarez; M. Fusi; G. Merlino; M. M. Varela

Description: Department of Food, Environmental and Nutritional Sciences, DeFENS, University of Milan, Via Celoria 2, 20133 Milan, Italy. No abstract available.

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Temporal Variations of Zooplankton Biomass in the Ligurian Sea Inf...

By: S. Pensieri; P. Picco; E. Fanelli; R. Bozzano; M. E. Schiano

Description: National Research Council of Italy (CNR-ISSIA) – Via de Marini 6, 16149, Genova, Italy. Three years of 300 kHz ADCP data collected in the central Ligurian Sea are analyzed to investigate the variability of the zooplankton biomass and the Diel Vertical Migrations (DVM) in the upper thermocline. After a pre-processing aimed at avoiding the slant range attenuation, hourly volume backscattering strength time series are obtained. Despite the l...

Ainslie, M. A.: A simplified formula for viscous and chemical absorption in sea water, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 103, 1671–1672, 1998.; Andersen, V.: Zooplankton community during the transition from spring bloom to oligotrophy in the open NW Mediterranean and effects of wind events. 1. Abundance and specific composition, J. Plankton Res., 23, 227–242, 2001a.; Andersen, V.: Zooplankton community during the transition from spring bloom to oligotrophy in the open NW Mediterranea...

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An Ensemble Study of Extreme North Sea Storm Surges in a Changing ...

By: H. De Vries; R. Haarsma; H. Van Den Brink; A. Sterl; E. Van Meijgaard

Description: Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), P.O. Box 201, 3730 AE De Bilt, The Netherlands. The height of storm surges is extremely important for a low-lying country like the Netherlands. By law, part of the coastal defence system has to withstand a water level that on average occurs only once every 10 000 years. The question then arises whether and how climate change affects the heights of extreme storm surges. Published research points to ...

Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of Extreme Values, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, London, Heidelberg, 208 pp., 2001.; Alexandersson, H., Schmith, T., Iden, K., and Tuomenvirta, H.: Long-term variations of the storm climate over NW Europe, Global Atmos. Oc. System, 6, 97–120, 1998.; Alexandersson, H., Tuomenvirta, H., Schmidth, T., and Iden, K.: Trends of storms in NW Europe derived from an updated pressure data set, Climate Res., 14, 71–73, 2000.; Bärring, L...

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Improved Near Real Time Surface Wind Resolution Over the Mediterra...

By: P. Queffeulou; D. Croize-fillon; H.-l. Ayina; A. Bentamy

Description: Institut Franc¸ais pour la Rechercher et l’exploitation de la MER (IFREMER), DOPS, BP 70, 20280 Plouzane, France. Several scientific programs, including the Mediterranean Forecasting System Toward Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP project), request high space and time resolutions of surface wind speed and direction. The purpose of this paper is to focus on surface wind improvements over the global Mediterranean Sea, based on the blending near real time r...

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Deriving a Sea Surface Climatology of Co2 Fugacity in Support of A...

By: P. E. Land; J. D. Shutler; D. K. Woolf; L. M. Goddijn-murphy; C. Donlon

Description: ERI, University of the Highlands and Islands, Ormlie Road, Thurso, UK. Climatologies, or long-term averages, of essential climate variables are useful for evaluating models and providing a baseline for studying anomalies. The Surface Ocean Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Atlas (SOCAT) has made millions of global underway sea surface measurements of CO2 publicly available, all in a uniform format and presented as fugacity, f<...

Dlugokencky, E. J., Masarie, K. A., Lang, P. M., and Tans, P. P.: NOAA Greenhouse Gas Reference from Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Dry Air Mole Fractions from the NOAA ESRL Carbon Cycle Cooperative Global Air Sampling Network, available at: ftp://aftp.cmdl.noaa.gov/data/trace_gases/co2/flask/surface/ (last access: 27 July 2014), 2014.; Donlon, C. J., Nightingale, P. D., Sheasby, T., Turner, J., Robinso...

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An Optical Model for Deriving the Spectral Particulate Backscatter...

By: S. P. Tiwari; P. Shanmugam

Description: Department of Ocean Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600036, India. An optical model is developed based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) to estimate particulate backscattering coefficients bbp(Λ) in clear and turbid coastal waters. A large in-situ data set is used to establish robust relationships between bbp(530) and bbp(555) and K<...

Mobely, C. D.: Light and water. Radiative transfer in natural waters, San Diego, Academic Press, 1994.; Morel, A.: Diffusion de la lumière par les eaux de mer: Résultats experimentaux et approach théoretique, in: AGARD Lecture Series, 3.1.1–3.1.76, 1973.; Antonie, D., Siegal, D. A., Kostadinov, T., Maritorena, S., Nelson, N. B., Gentilli, B., Vellucci, V., and Guillocheau N.: Variability in optical particle backscattering in contrasting bio-optical oceanic regimes, Limno...

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A Clustering Analysis of Eddies' Spatial Distribution in the South...

By: Z. He; Y. Du; C. Zhou; X. Wang; J. Yi

Description: State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China. Spatial variation is important for studying the mesoscale eddies in the South China Sea (SCS). To investigate such spatial variations, this study made a clustering analysis on eddies' distribution using the K-means approach. Results showed that clustering tendency of ant...

Banerjee, A. and Dave, R. N.: Validating clusters using the hopkins statistic, IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems (FUZZ-IEEE 2004), Budapest (Hungary), 149–153, 2004.; Brown, M. B. and Forsythe, A. B.: Robust Tests for the Equality of Variances, J. Am. Stat. Assoc., 69, 364–367, doi:10.1080/01621459.1974.10482955, 1974.; Cai, S., Su, J., Gan, Z., and Liu, Q.: The numerical study of the South China S...

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Turbulent Dispersion Properties from a Model Simulation of the Wes...

By: X. Carton; D. Elhmaidi; H. Nefzi

Description: Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Université Tunis ElManar, Tunisia. Using a high-resolution primitive equation model of the western Mediterranean Sea, we analyzed the dispersion properties of a set of homogeneously distributed, passive particle pairs. These particles were initially separated by different distances D0 (D0 = 5.55, 11.1 and 16.65 km), and were seeded in the model at initial depths of 44 and 500 m.

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Babiano, A., Basdevant, C., Leroy, P., and Sadourny, R.: Relative dispersion in two- dimensional turbulence, J. Fluid Mech., 214, 535–557, 1990.; Béranger, K., Mortier, L., and Crépon, M.: Seasonal variability of water transports through the Straits of Gibraltar, Sicily and Corsica, derived from a high resolution model of the Mediterranean circulation, Prog. Oceanogr., 66, 341–364, 2005.; Conkright, M. E., Locarnini, R. A., Garcia, H. E., O Brien, T. D., Boyer, T. P., St...

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Retrieving the Availability of Light in the Ocean Utilising Spect...

By: A. Bracher; V. V. Rozanov; J. P. Burrows; T. Dinter

Description: Institute of Environmental Physics, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. The availability of light in the ocean is an important parameter for the determination of phytoplankton photosynthesis processes and primary production from satellite data. It is also a useful parameter for other applications, e.g. the determination of heat fluxes. In this study, a method was developed utilising the vibrational Raman scattering (VRS) effect of water molecules to ...

Babin, M., Therriault, J.-C., Legendre, L., and Condal, A.: Variations in the specific absorption coefficient for natural phytoplankton assemblages: Impact on estimates of primary production, Limnol. Oceanogr., 38, 154–177, 1993.; Barrot, G.: GlobColour: An EO Based Service Supporting Global Ocean Carbon Cycle Research: Product User Guide, ESA, Ref: GC-UM-ACR-PUG-01, v1.4, 2010.; Blum, M., Rozanov, V., Burrows, J., and Bracher, A.: Coupled ocean–atmosphere radiative tran...

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Optical Tools for Ocean Monitoring and Research : Volume 5, Issue ...

By: A. Barnard; M. R. Lewis; P. Fietzek; H. M. Sosik; O. Zielinski; C. Moore; S. White

Description: WET Labs, Inc. Philomath, Oregon, OR 97370, USA. Requirements for understanding the relationships between ocean color and suspended and dissolved materials within the water column, and a rapidly emerging photonics and materials technology base for performing optical based analytical techniques have generated a diverse offering of commercial sensors and research prototypes that perform optical measurements in water. Through inversion, these tools are now...

Aas, E. and Højerslev, N. K.: Analysis of underwater radiance observations: Apparent optical properties and analytical functions describing the angular radiance distribution, J. Geophys. Res., 104, 8015–8024, 1999.; Alliance of Coastal Technologies (ACT): Protocols for verifying the performance of in situ chlorophyll fluorometers. Alliance of Coastal Technologies, http://www.act-us.info/evaluation_reports.php, 2005.; Alliance of Coastal Technologies (ACT): Protocols for ...

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Bio-optical Characterization and Light Availability Parametrizatio...

By: O. Zielinski; L. Holinde

Description: Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment, University of Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Str. 9–11, 26129 Oldenburg, Germany. Estuary systems are well-defined semi-enclosed systems which are strongly influenced by their terrestrial and marine boundaries. In this paper we investigate the bio-optical conditions in the water column of two neighboring estuary systems, Uummannaq Fjord and Vaigat–Disko Bay, in West Greenland. Though close to ...

Amante, C. and Eakins, B. W.: ETOPO1 1 Arc-Minute Global Relief Model: Procedures, Data Sources and Analysis, doi:10.7289/V5C8276M, available at: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html, (last access: 25 March 2015), 2009.; Arar, E. J.: Method 446.0: In Vitro Determination of Chlorophylls a, b, c + c and Pheopigments in Marine And Freshwater Algae by Visible...

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On the Use of the Strouhal/Stokes Number to Explain the Dynamics a...

By: A. J. Souza

Description: National Oceanography Centre, Joseph Proudman Building, 6 Brownlow Street, Liverpool, L3 5DA, UK. In recent years coastal oceanographers have suggested the use of the Strouhal number or it's inverse the Stokes number, which have been defined as the ratios of the frictional depth (δ) to the water column depth (h) or vice versa, to describe the effect of bottom boundary layer turbulence on the vertical structure of both density and currents. A...

Baumert, H. and Radach, G.: Hysteresis of turbulent kinetic energy in nonrotational tidal flows: a model study, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 3669–3677, 1992.; Burchard, H.: Combined effects of wind, tide, and horizontal density gradients on stratification in estuaries and coastal seas, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 2117–2136, 2009.; Burchard, H. and Hetland, R. D.: Quantifying the contributions of tidal straining and gravitational circulation to residual circulation in periodically s...

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Biogeography of Planktonic Microbial Communities Across the Whole ...

By: R. Alvariño; M. Barbato; M. M. Varela; M. Álvarez; F. Mapelli; S. Borin; G. Merlino; M. Fusi; D. Daffonchio

Description: Dipartimento di Scienze per gli Alimenti, la Nutrizione e l'Ambiente, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy. The M84/3 cruise recently held onboard of R/V Meteor represented a great and rare opportunity for the scientific community to realize a multidisciplinary survey on the whole Mediterranean Sea. In this context, molecular microbiology investigation, realized by applying Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Sequence Analysis (ARISA) and microscope...

Bensi, M., Rubino, A., Cardin, V. R., Hainbucher, D., and Mancero-Mosquera, I.: Structure and variability of the abyssal water masses in the Ionian Sea in the period 2003–2010, J. Geophys. Res., doi:10.1029/2012JC008178, in press, 2013.; Borin, S., Brusetti, L., Daffonchio, D., Delaney, E., and Baldi, F.: Biodiversity of prokaryotic communities in sediments of different sub-basins of the Venice lagoon, Res. Microbiol., 5...

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Black Sea Coastal Forecasting Systems : Volume 8, Issue 3 (10/05/2011)

By: N. Valchev; V. L. Dorofeyev; Yu. B. Ratner; T. Oguz; A. I. Kubryakov; V. Malciu; G. K. Korotaev; A. Palazov; R. Matescu

Description: Marine Hydrophysical Institute (MHI), 2, Kapitanskaya Street, 99011, Sevastopol, Crimea, Ukraine. The Black Sea coastal nowcasting and forecasting system was built within the framework of EU FP6 ECOOP project for five regions: the south-western basin along the coasts of Bulgaria and Turkey, the North-Western shelf along the Romanian and Ukrainian coasts, coastal zone around of the Crimea peninsula, the north-eastern Russian coastal zone and the coastal ...

Kordzadze, A. A. and Demetrashvili, D. I.: Operative forecast of hydrophysical fields in the Georgian Black Sea coastal zone within the ECOOP, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 8, 397–433, doi:10.5194/osd-8-397-2011, 2011.; Korotaev, G. K., Oguz, T., Dorofeyev, V. L., Demyshev, S. G., Kubryakov, A. I., and Ratner, Y. B.: Development of Black Sea nowcasting and forecasting system, Ocean Sci. Discuss., 8, 917–954,

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Estimation of Upward Radiances and Reflectances at the Surface of ...

By: E. Aas; Ø. Kleiv; J. Høkedal; K. Sørensen; A. Folkestad

Description: Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Gaustadalleen 21, 0349 Oslo, Norway. During four field days in the years 2009–2011, 22 series of measurement were collected in the Inner Oslofjord. The data consist of recordings of spectral sub-surface and above-surface nadir radiances, as well as spectral downward irradiance in air. The studied wavelengths are 351, 400 nm and the 10 former MERIS channels in the range 413–754 nm. The water-leaving radiance and th...

Aas, E.: A simple method for radiance calibration, in: European Workshop on Optical Ground Truth Instrumentation for the Validation of Space-Borne Optical Remote Sensing Data of the Marine Environment, 23–25 November 1993, Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, Texel, the Netherlands, Rep. 1994-3, 39–44, 1994.; Aas, E.: Estimates of radiance reflected towards the zenith at the surface of the sea, Ocean Sci., 6, 861–876, doi:

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