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Propagation and Dissipation of Internal Tides in the Oslofjord : V...

By: B. Liljebladh; E. Aas; A. Staalstrøm

Description: Section for Oceanography, Remote Sensing and Marine Modelling, Norwegian Institute for Water Research, Oslo, Norway. Observations of velocity, pressure, temperature and salinity in the inner Oslofjord have been analysed to provide new information about the relationships between internal tides generated by tidal currents across the Drøbak Sill and dissipation and diffusivity in the fjord.

The most energetic vertical displacement of density surfa...

Aas, E. and Endresen, Ø.: Accuracy of simplified transport estimations in narrow sea straits, Ocean Dynam., 51, 441-451, 1999.; Afanasyev, Y. D. and Peltier, W. R.: On breaking internal waves over the sill in Knight Inlet, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lnd. A, 457, 2700–2825, 2001.; Armi, L. and Farmer, D.: Stratified flow over topography: bifurcation fronts and transition to the uncontrolled state, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lnd. A, 458, 513–538, 2002.; Arneborg, L., Janzen, C., Liljebladh, B.,...

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Variational Assimilation of Lagrangian Trajectories in the Mediter...

By: N. Pinardi; D. Pettenuzzo; S. Dobricic; J. A. U. Nilsson; P.-m. Poulain

Description: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Viale Aldo Moro 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy. A novel method for three-dimensional variational assimilation of Lagrangian data with a primitive-equation ocean model is proposed. The assimilation scheme was implemented in the Mediterranean ocean Forecasting System and evaluated for a 4-month period. Four experiments were designed to assess the impact of trajectory assimilation on the model output, i.e. ...

Coppini, G., De Dominicis, M., Zodiatis, G., Lardner, R., Pinardi, N., Santoleri, R., Colella, S., Bignami, F., Hayes, D. R., Soloviev, D., Georgiou, G., and Kallos, G.: Hindcast of oil-spill pollution during the Lebanon crisis in the {E}astern {M}editerranean, {J}uly–{A}ugust 2006, Mar. Pollut. Bul., 62, 140–143, doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2010.08.021, 2011.; Dobricic, S. and Pinardi, N.: An oceanographic three-...

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Scaling Aspects of the Sea-ice-drift Dynamics and Pack Fracture : ...

By: L. V. Panov; V. N. Smirnov; A. Chmel

Description: Fracture Physics Department, Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 194021 St. Petersburg, Russia. A study of the sea-ice dynamics in the periods of time prior to and during the cycles of basin-wide fragmentation of the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is presented. The fractal geometry of the ice-sheets limited by leads and ridges was assessed using the satellite images, while the data on the correlated sea-ice motion were obtained...

Arneodo, A., Bacry, E., and Muzy, J. F.: The thermodynamics of fractals revisited with wavelets, Physica A, 213, 232–275, 1995.; Bouchaud, E.: Scaling properties of cracks, J. Phys.: Cond. Matter 9, 4319–4344, 1997.; Caldarelli, G., Di Tolla, F. D., and Petri, A.: Self-organization and annealed disorder in a fracturing process, Phys. Rev. Lett., 77, 2503–2506, 1996.; Carpinteri, A., Lacidogna., G., and Pugno, N.: Scaling of energy dissipation in crushing and fragmentatio...

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Sediment 231Pa/230Th as a Recorder of the Rate of the Atlantic Mer...

By: S. E. Allen; R. Francois; Y. Luo

Description: Department of Earth and Ocean Sciences, University of British Columbia, 6339 Stores Road, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4, Canada. A two dimensional scavenging-circulation model is used to investigate the patterns of sediment 231Pa/230Th generated by the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and further advance the application of this proxy for ocean paleocirculation studies. The scavenging parameters and the geometry of the over...

Chase, Z., Anderson, R. F., Fleisher, M. Q., and Kubik, P. W.: The influence of particle composition and particle flux on scavenging of Th, Pa and Be in the ocean, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 204, 215–219, 2002.; Chase, Z., Anderson, R. F., Fleisher, M. Q., and Kubik, P. W.: Scavenging of 230Th, 231Pa and 10Be in the Southern Ocean (SW Pacific sector): the importance of particle flux, particle composition and advection, Deep-Sea Res. II, 50...

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Comparing the Steric Height in the Northern Atlantic with Satellit...

By: D. V. Sidorenko; D. L. Aleynik; S. D. Danilov; V. O. Ivchenko; J. Schröter; M. Wenzel

Description: Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany. Anomalies of dynamic height derived from an analysis of Argo profiling buoys data are analysed to assess the relative roles of contributions from temperature and salinity over the North Atlantic for the period of 1999–2004. They are compared with dynamic topography anomalies based on TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason altimetry. It is shown that the halosteric contribution to the anomal...

Antonov, J. I., Levitus, S., and Boyer, T. P.: Steric sea level variations during 1957–1994: Importance of salinity. J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8013, doi:10.1029/2001JC000964, 2002.; Bretherton, F. P., Davis, R. E., and Fandry, C. B.: A technique for objective analysis and design of oceanographic experiments applied to MODE-73, Deep-Sea Res., 23, 559–582, 1976.; Gandin, L. S.: Objective analysis of meteorological fields. \em Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 287 pp. (in Russi...

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Seasonal Variability of Phytoplankton Fluorescence in Relation to ...

By: E. Crisafi; F. Raffa; F. Decembrini; F. Azzaro

Description: Institute for Coastal Marine Environment, CNR, Sp. S. Raineri, 86 – 98122 Messina, Italy. In the Straits of Messina, large gradients of tidal displacements, as well as the topographic constrictions, determine the upwelling of deeper waters in the surface layer. This work describes the seasonal variability in the surface distribution of phytoplankton biomass depending on the upwelling phenomena. Temperature, salinity, nitrates and phytoplankton fluorescen...

Alpers, W., Brandt, P., Rubino, A., and Backhaus, J. O.: Recent contributions of remote sensing to the study of internal waves in the Straits of Gibraltar and Messina. In: Briand, F. (Eds.), Dynamics of Mediterranean straits and channels. CIESM Science Series 2, Bull. Inst. oceanogr., Monaco, 17, 21–40, 1996.; Alpers, N. and Salusti, E.: Scylla and Charybdis observed from space, J. Geophys. Res., 88(3), 1800–1808, 1983.; Androsov, A. A., Voltzinger, N. E., Kagan, B. A., ...

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The Impacts of Physical Processes on Oxygen Variations in the Nort...

By: J. L. S. Hansen; Z. Wan; J. She; L. Jonasson

Description: Danish Meteorological Institute, Lyngbyvej 100, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. The bottom water of the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition zone suffers from seasonal hypoxia, usually during late summer and autumn. These hypoxic events are critical for the benthic ecosystems and the concentration of dissolved oxygen is an important measure of the water quality. However, to model the subsurface dissolved oxygen is a major challenge, especially in estuaries and coa...

Andersson, L. and Rydberg, L.: Trends in nutrient and oxygen conditions within the Kattegat: Effects of local nutrient supply, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 26, 559–579, 1988.; Andersson, L. and Rydberg, L.: Exchange of water and nutrients between the Skagerrak and the Kattegat, Estuar. Coast. Shelf. S., 36, 159–181, 1993.; Bendtsen, J., Gustavsson, K. E., Söderkvist, J., and Hansen, J. L. S.: Ventilation of bottom water in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone, J. Marine...

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Transformation of Levantine Intermediate Water Tracked by Medargo ...

By: A. Turiel; A. Julià; J. Font; J. Solé; M. R. Vitrià; M. Emelianov; P. Poulain

Description: Institut de Ciències del Mar de Barcelona – CSIC, Passeig MarÍtim de la Barceloneta,. A clustering methodology is applied to investigate the thermohaline structure of Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) in the western Mediterranean basin. 16 free-drifting hydrographic profilers were deployed in the framework of the MFSTEP project (MedArgo component) from September 2003. A total of 925 CTD profiles data collected until the beginning of February 2006 have ...

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First Images and Orientation of Fine Structure from a 3-d Seismic ...

By: W. S. Holbrook; T. M. Blacic

Description: University of Wyoming, Geology and Geophysics Department, 1000 E. University Ave., Laramie, WY 82071, USA. We present 3-D images of ocean fine structure from a unique industry-collected 3-D multichannel seismic dataset from the Gulf of Mexico that includes expendable bathythermograph casts for both swaths. 2-D processing reveals strong laterally continuous reflections throughout the upper ~800 m as well as a few weaker but still distinct reflections as ...

Biescas, B., Sallarès, V., Pelegrí, J. L., Machín, F., Carbonell, R., Buffett, G., Dañobeitia, J. J., and Calahorrano, A.: Imaging meddy finestructure using multichannel seismic reflection data, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11609, doi:10.1029/2008GL033971, 2008.; Cooper, C., Forristall, G. Z., and Joyce, T. M.: Velocity and hydrographic structure of two Gulf of Mexico warm-core rings, J. Geophys. Res., 95(C2), 1663–1679, 1990.; Egbert, G. D., Bennett, A. F., and Foreman, M....

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Energetics of the Layer-thickness Form Drag Based on an Integral I...

By: T. Yamagata; H. Aiki

Description: Frontier Research Center for Global Change, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, Yokohama-city 236-0001, Japan. The vertical redistribution of the geostrophic momentum by the residual effects of pressure perturbations (called the layer-thickness form drag) is investigated using thickness-weighted temporal-averaged mean primitive equations for a continuously stratified fluid in an adiabatic formulation. A four-box energy diagram, in whic...

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Thermodynamic Properties of Sea Air : Volume 6, Issue 3 (13/10/2009)

By: E. Hagen; R. Span; H.-j. Kretzschmar; R. Feistel; D. G. Wright; S. Herrmann

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research, 18119 Warnemünde, Germany. Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere–ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, th...

Feistel, R. and Feistel, S.: Die Ostsee als thermodynamisches System, in: L. Schimansky-Geier, H. Malchow, T. Pöschel (Hrsg.), Irreversible Prozesse und Selbstorganisation, Logos-Verlag, Berlin, 247–264, 2006.; Feistel, R. and Hagen, E.: On the GIBBS thermodynamic potential of seawater, Progr. Oceanogr., 36, 249–327, 1995.; Feistel, R. and Hagen, E.: A Gibbs thermodynamic potential of sea ice, Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 28, 83–142, 1998.; Feistel, R. and Marion, G. M.: ...

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Modelling of the Anthropogenic Tritium Transient and Its Decay Pro...

By: J. Beuvier; P. Jean-baptiste; K. Beranger; J.-c. Dutay; M. Ayache; T. Arsouze; W. Roether; J. Palmieri; B. Le-vu

Description: Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), IPSL, CEA/UVSQ/CNRS, Orme des Merisiers, Gif-Sur-Yvette, France. This numerical study provides the first simulation of the anthropogenic tritium invasion and its decay product helium-3 (3He) in the Mediterranean Sea. The simulation covers the entire tritium (3H) transient generated by the atmospheric nuclear-weapon tests performed in the 1950s and early 1960s and run t...

Andrié, C. and Merlivat, L.: Tritium in the western Mediterranean Sea during 1981 Phycemec cruise, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 35, 247–267, 1998.; Antonov, J. I., Locarnini, R. A., Boyer, T. P., Mishonov, A. V., and Garcia, H. E.: World Ocean Atlas 2005, Vol. 2 Salinity, edited by: Levitus, S., NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62, US Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C., 182 pp., 2006.; Attané, I. and Courbage, Y.: Demography in the Mediterranean region: situation and projections, Pl...

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Long-term Monitoring Programme of the Hydrological Variability in ...

By: M. Bensi; G. Budillon; H. Kontoyiannis; C. Sammari; V. Cardin; P. Puig; L. Bengara; S. Sparnocchia; J. Salat; J. García-lafuente; I. Taupier-letage; J. L. Fuda; A. Sanchez-roman; B. El Moumni; C. Millot; M. Vargas-yáñez; G. P. Gasparini; C. Tamburini; M. Borghini; J. C. Sánchez Garrido; S. Ben Ismail; P. Raimbault; A. Drago; A. Theocharis; J. Font; A. Vetrano; C. Curtil; L. Coppola; G. Rougier; D. Lefevre; K. Schroeder

Description: CNR-ISMAR, Forte Santa Teresa, 19036 Pozzuolo di Lerici, La Spezia, Italy. The long-term monitoring of basic hydrological parameters (temperature and salinity), collected as time series with adequate temporal resolution (i.e. with a sampling interval allowing the resolution of all important time scales) in key-places of the Mediterranean Sea (straits and channels, zones of dense water formation, deep parts of the basins), constitute a priority in the co...

ANTARES Collaboration: First results of the Instrumentation Line for the deep-sea ANTARES neutrino telescope, Astropart. Phys., 26, 314–324, 2006.; Ambar, I., Serra, N., Brogueira, M. J., Cabeçadas, G., Abrantes, F., Freitas, P., Gonçalves, C., and Gonzalez, N.: Physical, Chemical and Sedimentological Aspects of the Mediterranean Outflow Off Iberia, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 49, 4163–4177, 2002.; Artegiani, A., Paschini, E., Russo, A., Bregant, D., Raicich, F., and Pinardi, ...

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A Geographical and Seasonal Comparison of Nitrogen Uptake by Phyto...

By: H. Waldron; D. Clark; R. Philibert

Description: Department of Oceanography, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa. Primary production in the Southern Ocean has been shown to be regulated by light and nutrients (such as silicate and iron) availability. However, the impact of these factors vary seasonally and differ from region to region. The seasonal cycle of primary production in this region is not fully resolved over an annual scale due to the lack of winter in situ measurements. In ...

Bianchi, M., Feliatra, F., Tréguer, P., Vincendeau, M.-A., and Morvan, J.: Nitrification rates, ammonium and nitrate distribution in upper layers of the water column and in sediments of the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. II, 44, 1017–1032, 1997.; Bissett, W., Walsh, J., Dieterle, D., and Carder, K.: Carbon cycling in the upper waters of the Sargasso Sea: I. Numerical simulation of differential carbon and nitrogen fluxes, Deep-Sea Res. Pt. I, 46, 2...

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Study of the Combined Effects of Data Assimilation and Grid Nestin...

By: J. M. Beckers; A. Barth; M. Rixen; A. Alvera-azcárate; L. Vandenbulcke; Z. Ben Bouallegue

Description: GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research, Université de Liège, Belgium. Modern operational ocean forecasting systems routinely use data assimilation techniques in order to take observations into account in the hydrodynamic model. Moreover, as end users require higher and higher resolution predictions, especially in coastal zones, it is now common to run nested models, where the coastal model gets its open-sea boundary conditions from a low-resolution g...

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Regional Impacts of Ocean Color on Tropical Pacific Variability : ...

By: W. Anderson; A. Gnanadesikan; A. Wittenberg

Description: NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory, Princeton NJ, USA. The role of the penetration length scale of shortwave radiation into the surface ocean and its impact on tropical Pacific variability is investigated with a fully coupled ocean, atmosphere, land and ice model. Previous work has shown that removal of all ocean color results in a system that tends strongly towards an El Niño state. Results from a suite of surface chlorophyll perturbation exper...

Anderson, W. G., Gnanadesikan, A., Hallberg, R., Dunne, J., and Samuels, B L.: Impact of ocean color on the maintenance of the Pacific Cold Tongue, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34(11), L11609, doi:10.1029/2007GL030100, 2007.; Bjerknes, J.: Atmospheric teleconnections from the equatorial pacific, Mon. Weather Rev., 97, 163–172, 1969.; Ballabrera-Poy, J., Murtugudde, R., Zhang, R. H., and Busalacchi, A. J.: Coupled ocean-atmosphere response to seasonal modulation of ocean color: I...

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Sea Surface Freshening Inferred from Smos and Argo Salinity: Impac...

By: X. Yin; G. Reverdin; F. Gaillard; J. Boutin; N. Martin

Description: CNRS-INSU, LOCEAN/IPSL (CNRS-UPMC-IRD-MNHN), Paris, France. The sea surface salinity (SSS) measured from space by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission has recently been revisited by the European Space Agency first campaign reprocessing. We show that, with respect to the previous version, biases close to land and ice greatly decrease. The accuracy of SMOS SSS averaged over 10 days 100 × 100 km2 in the open ocean and estimated...

Kainulainen, J., Colliander, A., Closa, J., Martin-Neira, M., Oliva, R., Buenadicha, G., Rubiales Alcaine, P., Hakkarainen, A., and Hallikainen, M. T.: Radiometric performance of the SMOS reference radiometers-Assessment after one year of operation, IEEE T. Geosci. Remote, 50, 1367–1383, doi:10.1109/tgrs.2011.2177273, 2012.; Kerr, Y. H., Waldteufel, P., Wigneron, J. P., Delwart, S., Cabot, F., Boutin, J., Escorihuel...

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Relating Agulhas Leakage to the Agulhas Current Retroflection Loca...

By: P. J. Van Leeuwen; C. N. Barron; A. Biastoch; W. P. M. De Ruijter; E. Van Sebille; F. C. Vossepoel

Description: Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, The Netherlands. The relation between the Agulhas Current retroflection location and the magnitude of Agulhas leakage, the transport of water from the Indian to the Atlantic Ocean, is investigated in a high-resolution numerical ocean model. Sudden eastward retreats of the Agulhas Current retroflection loop are linearly related to the shedding of Agulhas rings, where larger retreat...

Biastoch, A., Böning, C. W., and Lutjeharms, J. R. E.: Agulhas leakage dynamics affects decadal variability in A}tlantic overturning circulation, Nature, 456, 489–492, 2008{a.; Biastoch, A., Lutjeharms, J. R. E., Böning, C. W., and Scheinert, M.: Mesoscale perturbations control inter-ocean exchange south of A}frica, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L20602, doi:10.1029/2008GL035132, 2008{b.; Blanke, B. and Raynaud, S.: Kinematics of the P}acific {E}quatorial {U}ndercurrent: An {E...

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An Observing System for the Collection of Fishery and Oceanographi...

By: A. Belardinelli; P. Falco; N. Cingolani; A. Santojanni; E. Arneri; A. Russo

Description: Istituto di Scienze Marine- Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Sede di Ancona, Largo Fiera della Pesca 60125, Ancona, Italy. Fishery Observing System (FOS) was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP). The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters also ...

Agenbag, J. J., Richardson, A. J., Demarcq, H., Fréon, P., Weeks, S., and Shillington, F. A.: Relating local abundance of South African pelagic fish species to environmental variables using generalized additive and linear models, Progr. in Oceanogr., 59, 275–300, 2003.; Agostini, V. N. and Bakun, A.: Ocean triads' in the Mediterranean Sea: physical mechanisms potentially structuring reproductive habitat suitability (with example application to European anchovy, \textitEn...

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Turbulence Closure: Turbulence, Waves and the Wave-turbulence Tran...

By: H. Peters; H. Z. Baumert

Description: Freie Universität, Dept. Mathematics and Computer Science, Berlin, and Institute for Applied Marine and Limnic Studies, Hamburg, Germany. This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K) balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from int...

Crawford, W R.: A Comparison of Length Scales and Decay Times of Turbulence in Stratified Flows, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 16, 1847–1854, 1986.; Abarbanel, H. D I., Holm, D D., Marsden, J E., and Ratio, T.: Richardson number criterion for the nonlinear stability of three-dimensional stratified flow, Phys. Rev. Lett., 26, 2352–2355, 1984.; Baumert, H.: A Novel Two-Equation Turbulence Closure for high Reynolds numbers. Part B: Spatially Non-Uniform Conditions, in: Marine Turbule...

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